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Mock 1 (Reading)

Duration: 65 minutes

52 Multiple Choice Questions

Instructions:
– Place your answer on the answer sheet. Mark only one answer for each of the multiple
choice questions.
– Avoid guessing. Your answers should reflect your overall understanding of the
subject matter.

1 / 52

The following passage is an excerptdisgusting and ugly appearance of him
from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bröntewho would presently deal it. I wonder if
about a young orphan girl and herhe read that notion in my face; for, all at
experience in the household she grew up50once, without speaking, he struck
in.suddenly and strongly. I tottered, and
on regaining my equilibrium retired
John Reed was a schoolboy of fourteenback a step or two from his chair.
years old; four years older than I, for I
was but ten: large and stout for his age,“That is for your impudence in
with a dingy and unwholesome skin;55answering mama awhile since,” said he,
5thick lineaments in a spacious visage,“and for your sneaking way of getting
heavy limbs and large extremities. Hebehind curtains, and for the look you
gorged himself habitually at table,had in your eyes two minutes since, you
which made him bilious, and gave him arat!”
dim and bleared eye and flabby60Accustomed to John Reed’s abuse, I
cheeks. He ought now to have been atnever had an idea of replying to it; my
10school; but his mama had taken himcare was how to endure the blow which
home for a month or two, “on accountwould certainly follow the insult.
of his delicate health.” Mr. Miles, the“What were you doing behind the
master, affirmed that he would do very65curtain?” he asked.
well if he had fewer cakes and“I was reading.”
15sweetmeats sent him from home; but the“Show the book.”
mother’s heart turned from an opinionI returned to the window and fetched it
so harsh, and inclined rather to the morethence.
refined idea that John’s sallowness was70“You have no business to take our
owing to over-application and, perhaps,books; you are a dependent, mama says;
20to pining after home.you have no money; your father left you
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
John had not much affection for hishere with gentlemen’s children like us,
mother and sisters, and an antipathy to75and eat the same meals we do, and wear
me. He bullied and punished me; notclothes at our mama’s expense. Now,
two or three times in the week, nor onceI’ll teach you to rummage my
25or twice in the day, but continually:bookshelves: for they are mine; all the
every nerve I had feared him, and everyhouse belongs to me, or will do in a few
morsel of flesh in my bones shrank80years. Go and stand by the door, out of
when he came near. There werethe way of the mirror and the windows.”
moments when I was bewildered by theI did so, not at first aware what was his
30terror he inspired, because I had nointention; but when I saw him lift and
appeal whatever against either hispoise the book and stand in act to hurl it,
menaces or his inflictions; the servants85I instinctively started aside with a cry of
did not like to offend their young master
by taking my part against him, and Mrs.alarm: not soon enough, however; the
35Reed was blind and deaf on the subject:volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell,
she never saw him strike or heard himstriking my head against the door and
abuse me, though he did both now andcutting it. The cut bled, the pain was
then in her very presence, more90sharp: my terror had passed its climax;
frequently, however, behind her back.other feelings succeeded.
40“Wicked and cruel boy!” I said. “You
Habitually obedient to John, I came upare like a murderer—you are like a
to his chair: he spent some three minutesslave-driver—you are like the Roman
in thrusting out his tongue at me as far95emperors!”
I had read Goldsmith’s History of
as he could without damaging the roots:Rome, and had formed my opinion of
I knew he would soon strike, and whileNero, Caligula, etc. Also I had drawn
45dreading the blow, I mused on theparallels in silence, which I never
100thought thus to have declared aloud.

1. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?

2 / 52

The following passage is an excerptdisgusting and ugly appearance of him
from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bröntewho would presently deal it. I wonder if
about a young orphan girl and herhe read that notion in my face; for, all at
experience in the household she grew up50once, without speaking, he struck
in.suddenly and strongly. I tottered, and
on regaining my equilibrium retired
John Reed was a schoolboy of fourteenback a step or two from his chair.
years old; four years older than I, for I
was but ten: large and stout for his age,“That is for your impudence in
with a dingy and unwholesome skin;55answering mama awhile since,” said he,
5thick lineaments in a spacious visage,“and for your sneaking way of getting
heavy limbs and large extremities. Hebehind curtains, and for the look you
gorged himself habitually at table,had in your eyes two minutes since, you
which made him bilious, and gave him arat!”
dim and bleared eye and flabby60Accustomed to John Reed’s abuse, I
cheeks. He ought now to have been atnever had an idea of replying to it; my
10school; but his mama had taken himcare was how to endure the blow which
home for a month or two, “on accountwould certainly follow the insult.
of his delicate health.” Mr. Miles, the“What were you doing behind the
master, affirmed that he would do very65curtain?” he asked.
well if he had fewer cakes and“I was reading.”
15sweetmeats sent him from home; but the“Show the book.”
mother’s heart turned from an opinionI returned to the window and fetched it
so harsh, and inclined rather to the morethence.
refined idea that John’s sallowness was70“You have no business to take our
owing to over-application and, perhaps,books; you are a dependent, mama says;
20to pining after home.you have no money; your father left you
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
John had not much affection for hishere with gentlemen’s children like us,
mother and sisters, and an antipathy to75and eat the same meals we do, and wear
me. He bullied and punished me; notclothes at our mama’s expense. Now,
two or three times in the week, nor onceI’ll teach you to rummage my
25or twice in the day, but continually:bookshelves: for they are mine; all the
every nerve I had feared him, and everyhouse belongs to me, or will do in a few
morsel of flesh in my bones shrank80years. Go and stand by the door, out of
when he came near. There werethe way of the mirror and the windows.”
moments when I was bewildered by theI did so, not at first aware what was his
30terror he inspired, because I had nointention; but when I saw him lift and
appeal whatever against either hispoise the book and stand in act to hurl it,
menaces or his inflictions; the servants85I instinctively started aside with a cry of
did not like to offend their young master
by taking my part against him, and Mrs.alarm: not soon enough, however; the
35Reed was blind and deaf on the subject:volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell,
she never saw him strike or heard himstriking my head against the door and
abuse me, though he did both now andcutting it. The cut bled, the pain was
then in her very presence, more90sharp: my terror had passed its climax;
frequently, however, behind her back.other feelings succeeded.
40“Wicked and cruel boy!” I said. “You
Habitually obedient to John, I came upare like a murderer—you are like a
to his chair: he spent some three minutesslave-driver—you are like the Roman
in thrusting out his tongue at me as far95emperors!”
I had read Goldsmith’s History of
as he could without damaging the roots:Rome, and had formed my opinion of
I knew he would soon strike, and whileNero, Caligula, etc. Also I had drawn
45dreading the blow, I mused on theparallels in silence, which I never
100thought thus to have declared aloud.

2. John Reed tone in the beginning of the passage is that of

3 / 52

The following passage is an excerptdisgusting and ugly appearance of him
from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bröntewho would presently deal it. I wonder if
about a young orphan girl and herhe read that notion in my face; for, all at
experience in the household she grew up50once, without speaking, he struck
in.suddenly and strongly. I tottered, and
on regaining my equilibrium retired
John Reed was a schoolboy of fourteenback a step or two from his chair.
years old; four years older than I, for I
was but ten: large and stout for his age,“That is for your impudence in
with a dingy and unwholesome skin;55answering mama awhile since,” said he,
5thick lineaments in a spacious visage,“and for your sneaking way of getting
heavy limbs and large extremities. Hebehind curtains, and for the look you
gorged himself habitually at table,had in your eyes two minutes since, you
which made him bilious, and gave him arat!”
dim and bleared eye and flabby60Accustomed to John Reed’s abuse, I
cheeks. He ought now to have been atnever had an idea of replying to it; my
10school; but his mama had taken himcare was how to endure the blow which
home for a month or two, “on accountwould certainly follow the insult.
of his delicate health.” Mr. Miles, the“What were you doing behind the
master, affirmed that he would do very65curtain?” he asked.
well if he had fewer cakes and“I was reading.”
15sweetmeats sent him from home; but the“Show the book.”
mother’s heart turned from an opinionI returned to the window and fetched it
so harsh, and inclined rather to the morethence.
refined idea that John’s sallowness was70“You have no business to take our
owing to over-application and, perhaps,books; you are a dependent, mama says;
20to pining after home.you have no money; your father left you
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
John had not much affection for hishere with gentlemen’s children like us,
mother and sisters, and an antipathy to75and eat the same meals we do, and wear
me. He bullied and punished me; notclothes at our mama’s expense. Now,
two or three times in the week, nor onceI’ll teach you to rummage my
25or twice in the day, but continually:bookshelves: for they are mine; all the
every nerve I had feared him, and everyhouse belongs to me, or will do in a few
morsel of flesh in my bones shrank80years. Go and stand by the door, out of
when he came near. There werethe way of the mirror and the windows.”
moments when I was bewildered by theI did so, not at first aware what was his
30terror he inspired, because I had nointention; but when I saw him lift and
appeal whatever against either hispoise the book and stand in act to hurl it,
menaces or his inflictions; the servants85I instinctively started aside with a cry of
did not like to offend their young master
by taking my part against him, and Mrs.alarm: not soon enough, however; the
35Reed was blind and deaf on the subject:volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell,
she never saw him strike or heard himstriking my head against the door and
abuse me, though he did both now andcutting it. The cut bled, the pain was
then in her very presence, more90sharp: my terror had passed its climax;
frequently, however, behind her back.other feelings succeeded.
40“Wicked and cruel boy!” I said. “You
Habitually obedient to John, I came upare like a murderer—you are like a
to his chair: he spent some three minutesslave-driver—you are like the Roman
in thrusting out his tongue at me as far95emperors!”
I had read Goldsmith’s History of
as he could without damaging the roots:Rome, and had formed my opinion of
I knew he would soon strike, and whileNero, Caligula, etc. Also I had drawn
45dreading the blow, I mused on theparallels in silence, which I never
100thought thus to have declared aloud.

3. Which choice best provides evidence for the answer to the previous question?

4 / 52

The following passage is an excerptdisgusting and ugly appearance of him
from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bröntewho would presently deal it. I wonder if
about a young orphan girl and herhe read that notion in my face; for, all at
experience in the household she grew up50once, without speaking, he struck
in.suddenly and strongly. I tottered, and
on regaining my equilibrium retired
John Reed was a schoolboy of fourteenback a step or two from his chair.
years old; four years older than I, for I
was but ten: large and stout for his age,“That is for your impudence in
with a dingy and unwholesome skin;55answering mama awhile since,” said he,
5thick lineaments in a spacious visage,“and for your sneaking way of getting
heavy limbs and large extremities. Hebehind curtains, and for the look you
gorged himself habitually at table,had in your eyes two minutes since, you
which made him bilious, and gave him arat!”
dim and bleared eye and flabby60Accustomed to John Reed’s abuse, I
cheeks. He ought now to have been atnever had an idea of replying to it; my
10school; but his mama had taken himcare was how to endure the blow which
home for a month or two, “on accountwould certainly follow the insult.
of his delicate health.” Mr. Miles, the“What were you doing behind the
master, affirmed that he would do very65curtain?” he asked.
well if he had fewer cakes and“I was reading.”
15sweetmeats sent him from home; but the“Show the book.”
mother’s heart turned from an opinionI returned to the window and fetched it
so harsh, and inclined rather to the morethence.
refined idea that John’s sallowness was70“You have no business to take our
owing to over-application and, perhaps,books; you are a dependent, mama says;
20to pining after home.you have no money; your father left you
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
John had not much affection for hishere with gentlemen’s children like us,
mother and sisters, and an antipathy to75and eat the same meals we do, and wear
me. He bullied and punished me; notclothes at our mama’s expense. Now,
two or three times in the week, nor onceI’ll teach you to rummage my
25or twice in the day, but continually:bookshelves: for they are mine; all the
every nerve I had feared him, and everyhouse belongs to me, or will do in a few
morsel of flesh in my bones shrank80years. Go and stand by the door, out of
when he came near. There werethe way of the mirror and the windows.”
moments when I was bewildered by theI did so, not at first aware what was his
30terror he inspired, because I had nointention; but when I saw him lift and
appeal whatever against either hispoise the book and stand in act to hurl it,
menaces or his inflictions; the servants85I instinctively started aside with a cry of
did not like to offend their young master
by taking my part against him, and Mrs.alarm: not soon enough, however; the
35Reed was blind and deaf on the subject:volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell,
she never saw him strike or heard himstriking my head against the door and
abuse me, though he did both now andcutting it. The cut bled, the pain was
then in her very presence, more90sharp: my terror had passed its climax;
frequently, however, behind her back.other feelings succeeded.
40“Wicked and cruel boy!” I said. “You
Habitually obedient to John, I came upare like a murderer—you are like a
to his chair: he spent some three minutesslave-driver—you are like the Roman
in thrusting out his tongue at me as far95emperors!”
I had read Goldsmith’s History of
as he could without damaging the roots:Rome, and had formed my opinion of
I knew he would soon strike, and whileNero, Caligula, etc. Also I had drawn
45dreading the blow, I mused on theparallels in silence, which I never
100thought thus to have declared aloud.

4. In lines 1-6, the author most likely mentions these details to

5 / 52

The following passage is an excerptdisgusting and ugly appearance of him
from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bröntewho would presently deal it. I wonder if
about a young orphan girl and herhe read that notion in my face; for, all at
experience in the household she grew up50once, without speaking, he struck
in.suddenly and strongly. I tottered, and
on regaining my equilibrium retired
John Reed was a schoolboy of fourteenback a step or two from his chair.
years old; four years older than I, for I
was but ten: large and stout for his age,“That is for your impudence in
with a dingy and unwholesome skin;55answering mama awhile since,” said he,
5thick lineaments in a spacious visage,“and for your sneaking way of getting
heavy limbs and large extremities. Hebehind curtains, and for the look you
gorged himself habitually at table,had in your eyes two minutes since, you
which made him bilious, and gave him arat!”
dim and bleared eye and flabby60Accustomed to John Reed’s abuse, I
cheeks. He ought now to have been atnever had an idea of replying to it; my
10school; but his mama had taken himcare was how to endure the blow which
home for a month or two, “on accountwould certainly follow the insult.
of his delicate health.” Mr. Miles, the“What were you doing behind the
master, affirmed that he would do very65curtain?” he asked.
well if he had fewer cakes and“I was reading.”
15sweetmeats sent him from home; but the“Show the book.”
mother’s heart turned from an opinionI returned to the window and fetched it
so harsh, and inclined rather to the morethence.
refined idea that John’s sallowness was70“You have no business to take our
owing to over-application and, perhaps,books; you are a dependent, mama says;
20to pining after home.you have no money; your father left you
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
John had not much affection for hishere with gentlemen’s children like us,
mother and sisters, and an antipathy to75and eat the same meals we do, and wear
me. He bullied and punished me; notclothes at our mama’s expense. Now,
two or three times in the week, nor onceI’ll teach you to rummage my
25or twice in the day, but continually:bookshelves: for they are mine; all the
every nerve I had feared him, and everyhouse belongs to me, or will do in a few
morsel of flesh in my bones shrank80years. Go and stand by the door, out of
when he came near. There werethe way of the mirror and the windows.”
moments when I was bewildered by theI did so, not at first aware what was his
30terror he inspired, because I had nointention; but when I saw him lift and
appeal whatever against either hispoise the book and stand in act to hurl it,
menaces or his inflictions; the servants85I instinctively started aside with a cry of
did not like to offend their young master
by taking my part against him, and Mrs.alarm: not soon enough, however; the
35Reed was blind and deaf on the subject:volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell,
she never saw him strike or heard himstriking my head against the door and
abuse me, though he did both now andcutting it. The cut bled, the pain was
then in her very presence, more90sharp: my terror had passed its climax;
frequently, however, behind her back.other feelings succeeded.
40“Wicked and cruel boy!” I said. “You
Habitually obedient to John, I came upare like a murderer—you are like a
to his chair: he spent some three minutesslave-driver—you are like the Roman
in thrusting out his tongue at me as far95emperors!”
I had read Goldsmith’s History of
as he could without damaging the roots:Rome, and had formed my opinion of
I knew he would soon strike, and whileNero, Caligula, etc. Also I had drawn
45dreading the blow, I mused on theparallels in silence, which I never
100thought thus to have declared aloud.

5. The main character mentions “the Roman emperors” in lines 94-95 to imply that imply that

6 / 52

The following passage is an excerptdisgusting and ugly appearance of him
from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bröntewho would presently deal it. I wonder if
about a young orphan girl and herhe read that notion in my face; for, all at
experience in the household she grew up50once, without speaking, he struck
in.suddenly and strongly. I tottered, and
on regaining my equilibrium retired
John Reed was a schoolboy of fourteenback a step or two from his chair.
years old; four years older than I, for I
was but ten: large and stout for his age,“That is for your impudence in
with a dingy and unwholesome skin;55answering mama awhile since,” said he,
5thick lineaments in a spacious visage,“and for your sneaking way of getting
heavy limbs and large extremities. Hebehind curtains, and for the look you
gorged himself habitually at table,had in your eyes two minutes since, you
which made him bilious, and gave him arat!”
dim and bleared eye and flabby60Accustomed to John Reed’s abuse, I
cheeks. He ought now to have been atnever had an idea of replying to it; my
10school; but his mama had taken himcare was how to endure the blow which
home for a month or two, “on accountwould certainly follow the insult.
of his delicate health.” Mr. Miles, the“What were you doing behind the
master, affirmed that he would do very65curtain?” he asked.
well if he had fewer cakes and“I was reading.”
15sweetmeats sent him from home; but the“Show the book.”
mother’s heart turned from an opinionI returned to the window and fetched it
so harsh, and inclined rather to the morethence.
refined idea that John’s sallowness was70“You have no business to take our
owing to over-application and, perhaps,books; you are a dependent, mama says;
20to pining after home.you have no money; your father left you
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
John had not much affection for hishere with gentlemen’s children like us,
mother and sisters, and an antipathy to75and eat the same meals we do, and wear
me. He bullied and punished me; notclothes at our mama’s expense. Now,
two or three times in the week, nor onceI’ll teach you to rummage my
25or twice in the day, but continually:bookshelves: for they are mine; all the
every nerve I had feared him, and everyhouse belongs to me, or will do in a few
morsel of flesh in my bones shrank80years. Go and stand by the door, out of
when he came near. There werethe way of the mirror and the windows.”
moments when I was bewildered by theI did so, not at first aware what was his
30terror he inspired, because I had nointention; but when I saw him lift and
appeal whatever against either hispoise the book and stand in act to hurl it,
menaces or his inflictions; the servants85I instinctively started aside with a cry of
did not like to offend their young master
by taking my part against him, and Mrs.alarm: not soon enough, however; the
35Reed was blind and deaf on the subject:volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell,
she never saw him strike or heard himstriking my head against the door and
abuse me, though he did both now andcutting it. The cut bled, the pain was
then in her very presence, more90sharp: my terror had passed its climax;
frequently, however, behind her back.other feelings succeeded.
40“Wicked and cruel boy!” I said. “You
Habitually obedient to John, I came upare like a murderer—you are like a
to his chair: he spent some three minutesslave-driver—you are like the Roman
in thrusting out his tongue at me as far95emperors!”
I had read Goldsmith’s History of
as he could without damaging the roots:Rome, and had formed my opinion of
I knew he would soon strike, and whileNero, Caligula, etc. Also I had drawn
45dreading the blow, I mused on theparallels in silence, which I never
100thought thus to have declared aloud.

6. Which choice best provides evidence for the answer to the previous question?

7 / 52

The following passage is an excerptdisgusting and ugly appearance of him
from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bröntewho would presently deal it. I wonder if
about a young orphan girl and herhe read that notion in my face; for, all at
experience in the household she grew up50once, without speaking, he struck
in.suddenly and strongly. I tottered, and
on regaining my equilibrium retired
John Reed was a schoolboy of fourteenback a step or two from his chair.
years old; four years older than I, for I
was but ten: large and stout for his age,“That is for your impudence in
with a dingy and unwholesome skin;55answering mama awhile since,” said he,
5thick lineaments in a spacious visage,“and for your sneaking way of getting
heavy limbs and large extremities. Hebehind curtains, and for the look you
gorged himself habitually at table,had in your eyes two minutes since, you
which made him bilious, and gave him arat!”
dim and bleared eye and flabby60Accustomed to John Reed’s abuse, I
cheeks. He ought now to have been atnever had an idea of replying to it; my
10school; but his mama had taken himcare was how to endure the blow which
home for a month or two, “on accountwould certainly follow the insult.
of his delicate health.” Mr. Miles, the“What were you doing behind the
master, affirmed that he would do very65curtain?” he asked.
well if he had fewer cakes and“I was reading.”
15sweetmeats sent him from home; but the“Show the book.”
mother’s heart turned from an opinionI returned to the window and fetched it
so harsh, and inclined rather to the morethence.
refined idea that John’s sallowness was70“You have no business to take our
owing to over-application and, perhaps,books; you are a dependent, mama says;
20to pining after home.you have no money; your father left you
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
John had not much affection for hishere with gentlemen’s children like us,
mother and sisters, and an antipathy to75and eat the same meals we do, and wear
me. He bullied and punished me; notclothes at our mama’s expense. Now,
two or three times in the week, nor onceI’ll teach you to rummage my
25or twice in the day, but continually:bookshelves: for they are mine; all the
every nerve I had feared him, and everyhouse belongs to me, or will do in a few
morsel of flesh in my bones shrank80years. Go and stand by the door, out of
when he came near. There werethe way of the mirror and the windows.”
moments when I was bewildered by theI did so, not at first aware what was his
30terror he inspired, because I had nointention; but when I saw him lift and
appeal whatever against either hispoise the book and stand in act to hurl it,
menaces or his inflictions; the servants85I instinctively started aside with a cry of
did not like to offend their young master
by taking my part against him, and Mrs.alarm: not soon enough, however; the
35Reed was blind and deaf on the subject:volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell,
she never saw him strike or heard himstriking my head against the door and
abuse me, though he did both now andcutting it. The cut bled, the pain was
then in her very presence, more90sharp: my terror had passed its climax;
frequently, however, behind her back.other feelings succeeded.
40“Wicked and cruel boy!” I said. “You
Habitually obedient to John, I came upare like a murderer—you are like a
to his chair: he spent some three minutesslave-driver—you are like the Roman
in thrusting out his tongue at me as far95emperors!”
I had read Goldsmith’s History of
as he could without damaging the roots:Rome, and had formed my opinion of
I knew he would soon strike, and whileNero, Caligula, etc. Also I had drawn
45dreading the blow, I mused on theparallels in silence, which I never
100thought thus to have declared aloud.

7. Lines 96-97 mention that the main character has read “Goldsmith’s History of Rome” in order to

8 / 52

The following passage is an excerptdisgusting and ugly appearance of him
from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bröntewho would presently deal it. I wonder if
about a young orphan girl and herhe read that notion in my face; for, all at
experience in the household she grew up50once, without speaking, he struck
in.suddenly and strongly. I tottered, and
on regaining my equilibrium retired
John Reed was a schoolboy of fourteenback a step or two from his chair.
years old; four years older than I, for I
was but ten: large and stout for his age,“That is for your impudence in
with a dingy and unwholesome skin;55answering mama awhile since,” said he,
5thick lineaments in a spacious visage,“and for your sneaking way of getting
heavy limbs and large extremities. Hebehind curtains, and for the look you
gorged himself habitually at table,had in your eyes two minutes since, you
which made him bilious, and gave him arat!”
dim and bleared eye and flabby60Accustomed to John Reed’s abuse, I
cheeks. He ought now to have been atnever had an idea of replying to it; my
10school; but his mama had taken himcare was how to endure the blow which
home for a month or two, “on accountwould certainly follow the insult.
of his delicate health.” Mr. Miles, the“What were you doing behind the
master, affirmed that he would do very65curtain?” he asked.
well if he had fewer cakes and“I was reading.”
15sweetmeats sent him from home; but the“Show the book.”
mother’s heart turned from an opinionI returned to the window and fetched it
so harsh, and inclined rather to the morethence.
refined idea that John’s sallowness was70“You have no business to take our
owing to over-application and, perhaps,books; you are a dependent, mama says;
20to pining after home.you have no money; your father left you
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
John had not much affection for hishere with gentlemen’s children like us,
mother and sisters, and an antipathy to75and eat the same meals we do, and wear
me. He bullied and punished me; notclothes at our mama’s expense. Now,
two or three times in the week, nor onceI’ll teach you to rummage my
25or twice in the day, but continually:bookshelves: for they are mine; all the
every nerve I had feared him, and everyhouse belongs to me, or will do in a few
morsel of flesh in my bones shrank80years. Go and stand by the door, out of
when he came near. There werethe way of the mirror and the windows.”
moments when I was bewildered by theI did so, not at first aware what was his
30terror he inspired, because I had nointention; but when I saw him lift and
appeal whatever against either hispoise the book and stand in act to hurl it,
menaces or his inflictions; the servants85I instinctively started aside with a cry of
did not like to offend their young master
by taking my part against him, and Mrs.alarm: not soon enough, however; the
35Reed was blind and deaf on the subject:volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell,
she never saw him strike or heard himstriking my head against the door and
abuse me, though he did both now andcutting it. The cut bled, the pain was
then in her very presence, more90sharp: my terror had passed its climax;
frequently, however, behind her back.other feelings succeeded.
40“Wicked and cruel boy!” I said. “You
Habitually obedient to John, I came upare like a murderer—you are like a
to his chair: he spent some three minutesslave-driver—you are like the Roman
in thrusting out his tongue at me as far95emperors!”
I had read Goldsmith’s History of
as he could without damaging the roots:Rome, and had formed my opinion of
I knew he would soon strike, and whileNero, Caligula, etc. Also I had drawn
45dreading the blow, I mused on theparallels in silence, which I never
100thought thus to have declared aloud.

8. As used in line 3, “stout” most nearly means

9 / 52

The following passage is an excerptdisgusting and ugly appearance of him
from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bröntewho would presently deal it. I wonder if
about a young orphan girl and herhe read that notion in my face; for, all at
experience in the household she grew up50once, without speaking, he struck
in.suddenly and strongly. I tottered, and
on regaining my equilibrium retired
John Reed was a schoolboy of fourteenback a step or two from his chair.
years old; four years older than I, for I
was but ten: large and stout for his age,“That is for your impudence in
with a dingy and unwholesome skin;55answering mama awhile since,” said he,
5thick lineaments in a spacious visage,“and for your sneaking way of getting
heavy limbs and large extremities. Hebehind curtains, and for the look you
gorged himself habitually at table,had in your eyes two minutes since, you
which made him bilious, and gave him arat!”
dim and bleared eye and flabby60Accustomed to John Reed’s abuse, I
cheeks. He ought now to have been atnever had an idea of replying to it; my
10school; but his mama had taken himcare was how to endure the blow which
home for a month or two, “on accountwould certainly follow the insult.
of his delicate health.” Mr. Miles, the“What were you doing behind the
master, affirmed that he would do very65curtain?” he asked.
well if he had fewer cakes and“I was reading.”
15sweetmeats sent him from home; but the“Show the book.”
mother’s heart turned from an opinionI returned to the window and fetched it
so harsh, and inclined rather to the morethence.
refined idea that John’s sallowness was70“You have no business to take our
owing to over-application and, perhaps,books; you are a dependent, mama says;
20to pining after home.you have no money; your father left you
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
John had not much affection for hishere with gentlemen’s children like us,
mother and sisters, and an antipathy to75and eat the same meals we do, and wear
me. He bullied and punished me; notclothes at our mama’s expense. Now,
two or three times in the week, nor onceI’ll teach you to rummage my
25or twice in the day, but continually:bookshelves: for they are mine; all the
every nerve I had feared him, and everyhouse belongs to me, or will do in a few
morsel of flesh in my bones shrank80years. Go and stand by the door, out of
when he came near. There werethe way of the mirror and the windows.”
moments when I was bewildered by theI did so, not at first aware what was his
30terror he inspired, because I had nointention; but when I saw him lift and
appeal whatever against either hispoise the book and stand in act to hurl it,
menaces or his inflictions; the servants85I instinctively started aside with a cry of
did not like to offend their young master
by taking my part against him, and Mrs.alarm: not soon enough, however; the
35Reed was blind and deaf on the subject:volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell,
she never saw him strike or heard himstriking my head against the door and
abuse me, though he did both now andcutting it. The cut bled, the pain was
then in her very presence, more90sharp: my terror had passed its climax;
frequently, however, behind her back.other feelings succeeded.
40“Wicked and cruel boy!” I said. “You
Habitually obedient to John, I came upare like a murderer—you are like a
to his chair: he spent some three minutesslave-driver—you are like the Roman
in thrusting out his tongue at me as far95emperors!”
I had read Goldsmith’s History of
as he could without damaging the roots:Rome, and had formed my opinion of
I knew he would soon strike, and whileNero, Caligula, etc. Also I had drawn
45dreading the blow, I mused on theparallels in silence, which I never
100thought thus to have declared aloud.

9. In line 12, the phrase “on account of his delicate health” is placed in quotation marks

10 / 52

The following passage is an excerptdisgusting and ugly appearance of him
from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bröntewho would presently deal it. I wonder if
about a young orphan girl and herhe read that notion in my face; for, all at
experience in the household she grew up50once, without speaking, he struck
in.suddenly and strongly. I tottered, and
on regaining my equilibrium retired
John Reed was a schoolboy of fourteenback a step or two from his chair.
years old; four years older than I, for I
was but ten: large and stout for his age,“That is for your impudence in
with a dingy and unwholesome skin;55answering mama awhile since,” said he,
5thick lineaments in a spacious visage,“and for your sneaking way of getting
heavy limbs and large extremities. Hebehind curtains, and for the look you
gorged himself habitually at table,had in your eyes two minutes since, you
which made him bilious, and gave him arat!”
dim and bleared eye and flabby60Accustomed to John Reed’s abuse, I
cheeks. He ought now to have been atnever had an idea of replying to it; my
10school; but his mama had taken himcare was how to endure the blow which
home for a month or two, “on accountwould certainly follow the insult.
of his delicate health.” Mr. Miles, the“What were you doing behind the
master, affirmed that he would do very65curtain?” he asked.
well if he had fewer cakes and“I was reading.”
15sweetmeats sent him from home; but the“Show the book.”
mother’s heart turned from an opinionI returned to the window and fetched it
so harsh, and inclined rather to the morethence.
refined idea that John’s sallowness was70“You have no business to take our
owing to over-application and, perhaps,books; you are a dependent, mama says;
20to pining after home.you have no money; your father left you
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
John had not much affection for hishere with gentlemen’s children like us,
mother and sisters, and an antipathy to75and eat the same meals we do, and wear
me. He bullied and punished me; notclothes at our mama’s expense. Now,
two or three times in the week, nor onceI’ll teach you to rummage my
25or twice in the day, but continually:bookshelves: for they are mine; all the
every nerve I had feared him, and everyhouse belongs to me, or will do in a few
morsel of flesh in my bones shrank80years. Go and stand by the door, out of
when he came near. There werethe way of the mirror and the windows.”
moments when I was bewildered by theI did so, not at first aware what was his
30terror he inspired, because I had nointention; but when I saw him lift and
appeal whatever against either hispoise the book and stand in act to hurl it,
menaces or his inflictions; the servants85I instinctively started aside with a cry of
did not like to offend their young master
by taking my part against him, and Mrs.alarm: not soon enough, however; the
35Reed was blind and deaf on the subject:volume was flung, it hit me, and I fell,
she never saw him strike or heard himstriking my head against the door and
abuse me, though he did both now andcutting it. The cut bled, the pain was
then in her very presence, more90sharp: my terror had passed its climax;
frequently, however, behind her back.other feelings succeeded.
40“Wicked and cruel boy!” I said. “You
Habitually obedient to John, I came upare like a murderer—you are like a
to his chair: he spent some three minutesslave-driver—you are like the Roman
in thrusting out his tongue at me as far95emperors!”
I had read Goldsmith’s History of
as he could without damaging the roots:Rome, and had formed my opinion of
I knew he would soon strike, and whileNero, Caligula, etc. Also I had drawn
45dreading the blow, I mused on theparallels in silence, which I never
100thought thus to have declared aloud.

10. As used in line 45, “strike” most nearly means

11 / 52

The following passage is taken fromquestion of priority and did not involve
Kepler by Walter W. Bryant discussingany support of the system, which he
Kepler’s relationship with Tycho, a55deemed far inferior to that of
fellow astronomer.Copernicus. The following year saw
friction between the two astronomers,
The association of Kepler with Tychoand we learn from Kepler’s abject letter
was one of the most importantof apology that he was entirely in the
landmarks in the history of astronomy.60wrong. It was about money matters,
The younger man hoped, by the aid ofwhich in one way or another embittered
5Tycho’s planetary observations, tothe rest of Kepler’s life, and it arose
obtain better support for some of hisduring his absence from Prague. On his
fanciful speculative theories, while thereturn in September, 1601, Tycho
latter, who had certainly not gained in65presented him to the Emperor, who gave
prestige by leaving Denmark, was inhim the title of Imperial Mathematician,
10great need of a competent staff ofon condition of assisting Tycho in his
assistants. Of the two it would almostcalculations, the very thing Kepler was
seem that Tycho thought himself themost anxious to be allowed to do: for
greater gainer, for in spite of his70nowhere else in the world was there
reputation for brusqueness and want ofsuch a collection of good observations
15consideration, he not only made light ofsufficient for his purpose of reforming
Kepler’s apology in the matter ofthe whole theory of astronomy.
Reymers, but treated him with uniform
kindness in the face of great rudenessThe Emperor’s interest was still mainly
and ingratitude. He begged him to come75with astrology, but he liked to think that
20“as a welcome friend,” though Kepler,his name would be handed down to
very touchy on the subject of his ownposterity in connection with the new
astronomical powers, was afraid hePlanetary Tables in the same way as that
might be regarded as simply aof Alphonso of Castile, and he made
subordinate assistant. An arrangement80liberal promises to pay the expenses.
25had been suggested by which KeplerTycho’s other principal assistant,
should obtain two years’ leave ofLongomontanus, did not stay long after
absence from Gratz on full pay, which,giving up the Mars observations to
because of the higher cost of living inKepler, but instead of working at the
Prague, should be supplemented by the85new lunar theory, suddenly left to take
30Emperor; but before this could beup a professorship of astronomy in his
concluded, Kepler threw up hisnative Denmark.
professorship, and thinking he had
thereby also lost the chance of going toVery shortly afterwards Tycho himself
Prague, applied to Maestlin and othersdied of acute distemper; Kepler began to
35of his Tübingen friends to make interest90prepare the mass of manuscripts for
for him with the Duke of Wurtembergpublication, but, as everything was
and secure the professorship ofclaimed by the Brahe family, he was not
medicine. Tycho, however, still urgedallowed to finish the work. He
him to come to Prague, promising to dosucceeded to Tycho’s post of principal
40his utmost to secure for him a95mathematician to the Emperor, at a
permanent appointment, or in any eventreduced official salary, which owing to
to see that he was not the loser bythe emptiness of the Imperial treasury
coming. was almost always in arrears. In order to
meet his expenses he had recourse to the
Kepler was delayed by illness on the100casting of nativities, for which he
45way, but ultimately reached Prague,gained considerable reputation and
accompanied by his wife, and for somereceived very good pay. He worked by
time lived entirely at Tycho’s expense,the conventional rules of astrology, and
writing by way of return essays againstwas quite prepared to take fees for so
Reymers and another man, who had105doing, although he had very little faith
50claimed the credit of the Tychonicin them, preferring his own fanciful
system. This Kepler could do with aideas.
clear conscience, as it was only a

11. In line 7, the author describes Kepler’s theories as “fanciful” and “speculative” to indicate that

12 / 52

The following passage is taken fromquestion of priority and did not involve
Kepler by Walter W. Bryant discussingany support of the system, which he
Kepler’s relationship with Tycho, a55deemed far inferior to that of
fellow astronomer.Copernicus. The following year saw
friction between the two astronomers,
The association of Kepler with Tychoand we learn from Kepler’s abject letter
was one of the most importantof apology that he was entirely in the
landmarks in the history of astronomy.60wrong. It was about money matters,
The younger man hoped, by the aid ofwhich in one way or another embittered
5Tycho’s planetary observations, tothe rest of Kepler’s life, and it arose
obtain better support for some of hisduring his absence from Prague. On his
fanciful speculative theories, while thereturn in September, 1601, Tycho
latter, who had certainly not gained in65presented him to the Emperor, who gave
prestige by leaving Denmark, was inhim the title of Imperial Mathematician,
10great need of a competent staff ofon condition of assisting Tycho in his
assistants. Of the two it would almostcalculations, the very thing Kepler was
seem that Tycho thought himself themost anxious to be allowed to do: for
greater gainer, for in spite of his70nowhere else in the world was there
reputation for brusqueness and want ofsuch a collection of good observations
15consideration, he not only made light ofsufficient for his purpose of reforming
Kepler’s apology in the matter ofthe whole theory of astronomy.
Reymers, but treated him with uniform
kindness in the face of great rudenessThe Emperor’s interest was still mainly
and ingratitude. He begged him to come75with astrology, but he liked to think that
20“as a welcome friend,” though Kepler,his name would be handed down to
very touchy on the subject of his ownposterity in connection with the new
astronomical powers, was afraid hePlanetary Tables in the same way as that
might be regarded as simply aof Alphonso of Castile, and he made
subordinate assistant. An arrangement80liberal promises to pay the expenses.
25had been suggested by which KeplerTycho’s other principal assistant,
should obtain two years’ leave ofLongomontanus, did not stay long after
absence from Gratz on full pay, which,giving up the Mars observations to
because of the higher cost of living inKepler, but instead of working at the
Prague, should be supplemented by the85new lunar theory, suddenly left to take
30Emperor; but before this could beup a professorship of astronomy in his
concluded, Kepler threw up hisnative Denmark.
professorship, and thinking he had
thereby also lost the chance of going toVery shortly afterwards Tycho himself
Prague, applied to Maestlin and othersdied of acute distemper; Kepler began to
35of his Tübingen friends to make interest90prepare the mass of manuscripts for
for him with the Duke of Wurtembergpublication, but, as everything was
and secure the professorship ofclaimed by the Brahe family, he was not
medicine. Tycho, however, still urgedallowed to finish the work. He
him to come to Prague, promising to dosucceeded to Tycho’s post of principal
40his utmost to secure for him a95mathematician to the Emperor, at a
permanent appointment, or in any eventreduced official salary, which owing to
to see that he was not the loser bythe emptiness of the Imperial treasury
coming. was almost always in arrears. In order to
meet his expenses he had recourse to the
Kepler was delayed by illness on the100casting of nativities, for which he
45way, but ultimately reached Prague,gained considerable reputation and
accompanied by his wife, and for somereceived very good pay. He worked by
time lived entirely at Tycho’s expense,the conventional rules of astrology, and
writing by way of return essays againstwas quite prepared to take fees for so
Reymers and another man, who had105doing, although he had very little faith
50claimed the credit of the Tychonicin them, preferring his own fanciful
system. This Kepler could do with aideas.
clear conscience, as it was only a

12. According to the passage, Kepler’s personality could best be described as

13 / 52

The following passage is taken fromquestion of priority and did not involve
Kepler by Walter W. Bryant discussingany support of the system, which he
Kepler’s relationship with Tycho, a55deemed far inferior to that of
fellow astronomer.Copernicus. The following year saw
friction between the two astronomers,
The association of Kepler with Tychoand we learn from Kepler’s abject letter
was one of the most importantof apology that he was entirely in the
landmarks in the history of astronomy.60wrong. It was about money matters,
The younger man hoped, by the aid ofwhich in one way or another embittered
5Tycho’s planetary observations, tothe rest of Kepler’s life, and it arose
obtain better support for some of hisduring his absence from Prague. On his
fanciful speculative theories, while thereturn in September, 1601, Tycho
latter, who had certainly not gained in65presented him to the Emperor, who gave
prestige by leaving Denmark, was inhim the title of Imperial Mathematician,
10great need of a competent staff ofon condition of assisting Tycho in his
assistants. Of the two it would almostcalculations, the very thing Kepler was
seem that Tycho thought himself themost anxious to be allowed to do: for
greater gainer, for in spite of his70nowhere else in the world was there
reputation for brusqueness and want ofsuch a collection of good observations
15consideration, he not only made light ofsufficient for his purpose of reforming
Kepler’s apology in the matter ofthe whole theory of astronomy.
Reymers, but treated him with uniform
kindness in the face of great rudenessThe Emperor’s interest was still mainly
and ingratitude. He begged him to come75with astrology, but he liked to think that
20“as a welcome friend,” though Kepler,his name would be handed down to
very touchy on the subject of his ownposterity in connection with the new
astronomical powers, was afraid hePlanetary Tables in the same way as that
might be regarded as simply aof Alphonso of Castile, and he made
subordinate assistant. An arrangement80liberal promises to pay the expenses.
25had been suggested by which KeplerTycho’s other principal assistant,
should obtain two years’ leave ofLongomontanus, did not stay long after
absence from Gratz on full pay, which,giving up the Mars observations to
because of the higher cost of living inKepler, but instead of working at the
Prague, should be supplemented by the85new lunar theory, suddenly left to take
30Emperor; but before this could beup a professorship of astronomy in his
concluded, Kepler threw up hisnative Denmark.
professorship, and thinking he had
thereby also lost the chance of going toVery shortly afterwards Tycho himself
Prague, applied to Maestlin and othersdied of acute distemper; Kepler began to
35of his Tübingen friends to make interest90prepare the mass of manuscripts for
for him with the Duke of Wurtembergpublication, but, as everything was
and secure the professorship ofclaimed by the Brahe family, he was not
medicine. Tycho, however, still urgedallowed to finish the work. He
him to come to Prague, promising to dosucceeded to Tycho’s post of principal
40his utmost to secure for him a95mathematician to the Emperor, at a
permanent appointment, or in any eventreduced official salary, which owing to
to see that he was not the loser bythe emptiness of the Imperial treasury
coming. was almost always in arrears. In order to
meet his expenses he had recourse to the
Kepler was delayed by illness on the100casting of nativities, for which he
45way, but ultimately reached Prague,gained considerable reputation and
accompanied by his wife, and for somereceived very good pay. He worked by
time lived entirely at Tycho’s expense,the conventional rules of astrology, and
writing by way of return essays againstwas quite prepared to take fees for so
Reymers and another man, who had105doing, although he had very little faith
50claimed the credit of the Tychonicin them, preferring his own fanciful
system. This Kepler could do with aideas.
clear conscience, as it was only a

13. Which choice best provides evidence for the answer to the previous question?

14 / 52

The following passage is taken fromquestion of priority and did not involve
Kepler by Walter W. Bryant discussingany support of the system, which he
Kepler’s relationship with Tycho, a55deemed far inferior to that of
fellow astronomer.Copernicus. The following year saw
friction between the two astronomers,
The association of Kepler with Tychoand we learn from Kepler’s abject letter
was one of the most importantof apology that he was entirely in the
landmarks in the history of astronomy.60wrong. It was about money matters,
The younger man hoped, by the aid ofwhich in one way or another embittered
5Tycho’s planetary observations, tothe rest of Kepler’s life, and it arose
obtain better support for some of hisduring his absence from Prague. On his
fanciful speculative theories, while thereturn in September, 1601, Tycho
latter, who had certainly not gained in65presented him to the Emperor, who gave
prestige by leaving Denmark, was inhim the title of Imperial Mathematician,
10great need of a competent staff ofon condition of assisting Tycho in his
assistants. Of the two it would almostcalculations, the very thing Kepler was
seem that Tycho thought himself themost anxious to be allowed to do: for
greater gainer, for in spite of his70nowhere else in the world was there
reputation for brusqueness and want ofsuch a collection of good observations
15consideration, he not only made light ofsufficient for his purpose of reforming
Kepler’s apology in the matter ofthe whole theory of astronomy.
Reymers, but treated him with uniform
kindness in the face of great rudenessThe Emperor’s interest was still mainly
and ingratitude. He begged him to come75with astrology, but he liked to think that
20“as a welcome friend,” though Kepler,his name would be handed down to
very touchy on the subject of his ownposterity in connection with the new
astronomical powers, was afraid hePlanetary Tables in the same way as that
might be regarded as simply aof Alphonso of Castile, and he made
subordinate assistant. An arrangement80liberal promises to pay the expenses.
25had been suggested by which KeplerTycho’s other principal assistant,
should obtain two years’ leave ofLongomontanus, did not stay long after
absence from Gratz on full pay, which,giving up the Mars observations to
because of the higher cost of living inKepler, but instead of working at the
Prague, should be supplemented by the85new lunar theory, suddenly left to take
30Emperor; but before this could beup a professorship of astronomy in his
concluded, Kepler threw up hisnative Denmark.
professorship, and thinking he had
thereby also lost the chance of going toVery shortly afterwards Tycho himself
Prague, applied to Maestlin and othersdied of acute distemper; Kepler began to
35of his Tübingen friends to make interest90prepare the mass of manuscripts for
for him with the Duke of Wurtembergpublication, but, as everything was
and secure the professorship ofclaimed by the Brahe family, he was not
medicine. Tycho, however, still urgedallowed to finish the work. He
him to come to Prague, promising to dosucceeded to Tycho’s post of principal
40his utmost to secure for him a95mathematician to the Emperor, at a
permanent appointment, or in any eventreduced official salary, which owing to
to see that he was not the loser bythe emptiness of the Imperial treasury
coming. was almost always in arrears. In order to
meet his expenses he had recourse to the
Kepler was delayed by illness on the100casting of nativities, for which he
45way, but ultimately reached Prague,gained considerable reputation and
accompanied by his wife, and for somereceived very good pay. He worked by
time lived entirely at Tycho’s expense,the conventional rules of astrology, and
writing by way of return essays againstwas quite prepared to take fees for so
Reymers and another man, who had105doing, although he had very little faith
50claimed the credit of the Tychonicin them, preferring his own fanciful
system. This Kepler could do with aideas.
clear conscience, as it was only a

14. As used in line 14, “want” most nearly means

15 / 52

The following passage is taken fromquestion of priority and did not involve
Kepler by Walter W. Bryant discussingany support of the system, which he
Kepler’s relationship with Tycho, a55deemed far inferior to that of
fellow astronomer.Copernicus. The following year saw
friction between the two astronomers,
The association of Kepler with Tychoand we learn from Kepler’s abject letter
was one of the most importantof apology that he was entirely in the
landmarks in the history of astronomy.60wrong. It was about money matters,
The younger man hoped, by the aid ofwhich in one way or another embittered
5Tycho’s planetary observations, tothe rest of Kepler’s life, and it arose
obtain better support for some of hisduring his absence from Prague. On his
fanciful speculative theories, while thereturn in September, 1601, Tycho
latter, who had certainly not gained in65presented him to the Emperor, who gave
prestige by leaving Denmark, was inhim the title of Imperial Mathematician,
10great need of a competent staff ofon condition of assisting Tycho in his
assistants. Of the two it would almostcalculations, the very thing Kepler was
seem that Tycho thought himself themost anxious to be allowed to do: for
greater gainer, for in spite of his70nowhere else in the world was there
reputation for brusqueness and want ofsuch a collection of good observations
15consideration, he not only made light ofsufficient for his purpose of reforming
Kepler’s apology in the matter ofthe whole theory of astronomy.
Reymers, but treated him with uniform
kindness in the face of great rudenessThe Emperor’s interest was still mainly
and ingratitude. He begged him to come75with astrology, but he liked to think that
20“as a welcome friend,” though Kepler,his name would be handed down to
very touchy on the subject of his ownposterity in connection with the new
astronomical powers, was afraid hePlanetary Tables in the same way as that
might be regarded as simply aof Alphonso of Castile, and he made
subordinate assistant. An arrangement80liberal promises to pay the expenses.
25had been suggested by which KeplerTycho’s other principal assistant,
should obtain two years’ leave ofLongomontanus, did not stay long after
absence from Gratz on full pay, which,giving up the Mars observations to
because of the higher cost of living inKepler, but instead of working at the
Prague, should be supplemented by the85new lunar theory, suddenly left to take
30Emperor; but before this could beup a professorship of astronomy in his
concluded, Kepler threw up hisnative Denmark.
professorship, and thinking he had
thereby also lost the chance of going toVery shortly afterwards Tycho himself
Prague, applied to Maestlin and othersdied of acute distemper; Kepler began to
35of his Tübingen friends to make interest90prepare the mass of manuscripts for
for him with the Duke of Wurtembergpublication, but, as everything was
and secure the professorship ofclaimed by the Brahe family, he was not
medicine. Tycho, however, still urgedallowed to finish the work. He
him to come to Prague, promising to dosucceeded to Tycho’s post of principal
40his utmost to secure for him a95mathematician to the Emperor, at a
permanent appointment, or in any eventreduced official salary, which owing to
to see that he was not the loser bythe emptiness of the Imperial treasury
coming. was almost always in arrears. In order to
meet his expenses he had recourse to the
Kepler was delayed by illness on the100casting of nativities, for which he
45way, but ultimately reached Prague,gained considerable reputation and
accompanied by his wife, and for somereceived very good pay. He worked by
time lived entirely at Tycho’s expense,the conventional rules of astrology, and
writing by way of return essays againstwas quite prepared to take fees for so
Reymers and another man, who had105doing, although he had very little faith
50claimed the credit of the Tychonicin them, preferring his own fanciful
system. This Kepler could do with aideas.
clear conscience, as it was only a

15. According to the passage, all of the following statements are true EXCEPT

16 / 52

The following passage is taken fromquestion of priority and did not involve
Kepler by Walter W. Bryant discussingany support of the system, which he
Kepler’s relationship with Tycho, a55deemed far inferior to that of
fellow astronomer.Copernicus. The following year saw
friction between the two astronomers,
The association of Kepler with Tychoand we learn from Kepler’s abject letter
was one of the most importantof apology that he was entirely in the
landmarks in the history of astronomy.60wrong. It was about money matters,
The younger man hoped, by the aid ofwhich in one way or another embittered
5Tycho’s planetary observations, tothe rest of Kepler’s life, and it arose
obtain better support for some of hisduring his absence from Prague. On his
fanciful speculative theories, while thereturn in September, 1601, Tycho
latter, who had certainly not gained in65presented him to the Emperor, who gave
prestige by leaving Denmark, was inhim the title of Imperial Mathematician,
10great need of a competent staff ofon condition of assisting Tycho in his
assistants. Of the two it would almostcalculations, the very thing Kepler was
seem that Tycho thought himself themost anxious to be allowed to do: for
greater gainer, for in spite of his70nowhere else in the world was there
reputation for brusqueness and want ofsuch a collection of good observations
15consideration, he not only made light ofsufficient for his purpose of reforming
Kepler’s apology in the matter ofthe whole theory of astronomy.
Reymers, but treated him with uniform
kindness in the face of great rudenessThe Emperor’s interest was still mainly
and ingratitude. He begged him to come75with astrology, but he liked to think that
20“as a welcome friend,” though Kepler,his name would be handed down to
very touchy on the subject of his ownposterity in connection with the new
astronomical powers, was afraid hePlanetary Tables in the same way as that
might be regarded as simply aof Alphonso of Castile, and he made
subordinate assistant. An arrangement80liberal promises to pay the expenses.
25had been suggested by which KeplerTycho’s other principal assistant,
should obtain two years’ leave ofLongomontanus, did not stay long after
absence from Gratz on full pay, which,giving up the Mars observations to
because of the higher cost of living inKepler, but instead of working at the
Prague, should be supplemented by the85new lunar theory, suddenly left to take
30Emperor; but before this could beup a professorship of astronomy in his
concluded, Kepler threw up hisnative Denmark.
professorship, and thinking he had
thereby also lost the chance of going toVery shortly afterwards Tycho himself
Prague, applied to Maestlin and othersdied of acute distemper; Kepler began to
35of his Tübingen friends to make interest90prepare the mass of manuscripts for
for him with the Duke of Wurtembergpublication, but, as everything was
and secure the professorship ofclaimed by the Brahe family, he was not
medicine. Tycho, however, still urgedallowed to finish the work. He
him to come to Prague, promising to dosucceeded to Tycho’s post of principal
40his utmost to secure for him a95mathematician to the Emperor, at a
permanent appointment, or in any eventreduced official salary, which owing to
to see that he was not the loser bythe emptiness of the Imperial treasury
coming. was almost always in arrears. In order to
meet his expenses he had recourse to the
Kepler was delayed by illness on the100casting of nativities, for which he
45way, but ultimately reached Prague,gained considerable reputation and
accompanied by his wife, and for somereceived very good pay. He worked by
time lived entirely at Tycho’s expense,the conventional rules of astrology, and
writing by way of return essays againstwas quite prepared to take fees for so
Reymers and another man, who had105doing, although he had very little faith
50claimed the credit of the Tychonicin them, preferring his own fanciful
system. This Kepler could do with aideas.
clear conscience, as it was only a

16. According to the passage, Kepler suffered most of his life from

17 / 52

The following passage is taken fromquestion of priority and did not involve
Kepler by Walter W. Bryant discussingany support of the system, which he
Kepler’s relationship with Tycho, a55deemed far inferior to that of
fellow astronomer.Copernicus. The following year saw
friction between the two astronomers,
The association of Kepler with Tychoand we learn from Kepler’s abject letter
was one of the most importantof apology that he was entirely in the
landmarks in the history of astronomy.60wrong. It was about money matters,
The younger man hoped, by the aid ofwhich in one way or another embittered
5Tycho’s planetary observations, tothe rest of Kepler’s life, and it arose
obtain better support for some of hisduring his absence from Prague. On his
fanciful speculative theories, while thereturn in September, 1601, Tycho
latter, who had certainly not gained in65presented him to the Emperor, who gave
prestige by leaving Denmark, was inhim the title of Imperial Mathematician,
10great need of a competent staff ofon condition of assisting Tycho in his
assistants. Of the two it would almostcalculations, the very thing Kepler was
seem that Tycho thought himself themost anxious to be allowed to do: for
greater gainer, for in spite of his70nowhere else in the world was there
reputation for brusqueness and want ofsuch a collection of good observations
15consideration, he not only made light ofsufficient for his purpose of reforming
Kepler’s apology in the matter ofthe whole theory of astronomy.
Reymers, but treated him with uniform
kindness in the face of great rudenessThe Emperor’s interest was still mainly
and ingratitude. He begged him to come75with astrology, but he liked to think that
20“as a welcome friend,” though Kepler,his name would be handed down to
very touchy on the subject of his ownposterity in connection with the new
astronomical powers, was afraid hePlanetary Tables in the same way as that
might be regarded as simply aof Alphonso of Castile, and he made
subordinate assistant. An arrangement80liberal promises to pay the expenses.
25had been suggested by which KeplerTycho’s other principal assistant,
should obtain two years’ leave ofLongomontanus, did not stay long after
absence from Gratz on full pay, which,giving up the Mars observations to
because of the higher cost of living inKepler, but instead of working at the
Prague, should be supplemented by the85new lunar theory, suddenly left to take
30Emperor; but before this could beup a professorship of astronomy in his
concluded, Kepler threw up hisnative Denmark.
professorship, and thinking he had
thereby also lost the chance of going toVery shortly afterwards Tycho himself
Prague, applied to Maestlin and othersdied of acute distemper; Kepler began to
35of his Tübingen friends to make interest90prepare the mass of manuscripts for
for him with the Duke of Wurtembergpublication, but, as everything was
and secure the professorship ofclaimed by the Brahe family, he was not
medicine. Tycho, however, still urgedallowed to finish the work. He
him to come to Prague, promising to dosucceeded to Tycho’s post of principal
40his utmost to secure for him a95mathematician to the Emperor, at a
permanent appointment, or in any eventreduced official salary, which owing to
to see that he was not the loser bythe emptiness of the Imperial treasury
coming. was almost always in arrears. In order to
meet his expenses he had recourse to the
Kepler was delayed by illness on the100casting of nativities, for which he
45way, but ultimately reached Prague,gained considerable reputation and
accompanied by his wife, and for somereceived very good pay. He worked by
time lived entirely at Tycho’s expense,the conventional rules of astrology, and
writing by way of return essays againstwas quite prepared to take fees for so
Reymers and another man, who had105doing, although he had very little faith
50claimed the credit of the Tychonicin them, preferring his own fanciful
system. This Kepler could do with aideas.
clear conscience, as it was only a

17. The passage is most likely written for an audience that

18 / 52

The following passage is taken fromquestion of priority and did not involve
Kepler by Walter W. Bryant discussingany support of the system, which he
Kepler’s relationship with Tycho, a55deemed far inferior to that of
fellow astronomer.Copernicus. The following year saw
friction between the two astronomers,
The association of Kepler with Tychoand we learn from Kepler’s abject letter
was one of the most importantof apology that he was entirely in the
landmarks in the history of astronomy.60wrong. It was about money matters,
The younger man hoped, by the aid ofwhich in one way or another embittered
5Tycho’s planetary observations, tothe rest of Kepler’s life, and it arose
obtain better support for some of hisduring his absence from Prague. On his
fanciful speculative theories, while thereturn in September, 1601, Tycho
latter, who had certainly not gained in65presented him to the Emperor, who gave
prestige by leaving Denmark, was inhim the title of Imperial Mathematician,
10great need of a competent staff ofon condition of assisting Tycho in his
assistants. Of the two it would almostcalculations, the very thing Kepler was
seem that Tycho thought himself themost anxious to be allowed to do: for
greater gainer, for in spite of his70nowhere else in the world was there
reputation for brusqueness and want ofsuch a collection of good observations
15consideration, he not only made light ofsufficient for his purpose of reforming
Kepler’s apology in the matter ofthe whole theory of astronomy.
Reymers, but treated him with uniform
kindness in the face of great rudenessThe Emperor’s interest was still mainly
and ingratitude. He begged him to come75with astrology, but he liked to think that
20“as a welcome friend,” though Kepler,his name would be handed down to
very touchy on the subject of his ownposterity in connection with the new
astronomical powers, was afraid hePlanetary Tables in the same way as that
might be regarded as simply aof Alphonso of Castile, and he made
subordinate assistant. An arrangement80liberal promises to pay the expenses.
25had been suggested by which KeplerTycho’s other principal assistant,
should obtain two years’ leave ofLongomontanus, did not stay long after
absence from Gratz on full pay, which,giving up the Mars observations to
because of the higher cost of living inKepler, but instead of working at the
Prague, should be supplemented by the85new lunar theory, suddenly left to take
30Emperor; but before this could beup a professorship of astronomy in his
concluded, Kepler threw up hisnative Denmark.
professorship, and thinking he had
thereby also lost the chance of going toVery shortly afterwards Tycho himself
Prague, applied to Maestlin and othersdied of acute distemper; Kepler began to
35of his Tübingen friends to make interest90prepare the mass of manuscripts for
for him with the Duke of Wurtembergpublication, but, as everything was
and secure the professorship ofclaimed by the Brahe family, he was not
medicine. Tycho, however, still urgedallowed to finish the work. He
him to come to Prague, promising to dosucceeded to Tycho’s post of principal
40his utmost to secure for him a95mathematician to the Emperor, at a
permanent appointment, or in any eventreduced official salary, which owing to
to see that he was not the loser bythe emptiness of the Imperial treasury
coming. was almost always in arrears. In order to
meet his expenses he had recourse to the
Kepler was delayed by illness on the100casting of nativities, for which he
45way, but ultimately reached Prague,gained considerable reputation and
accompanied by his wife, and for somereceived very good pay. He worked by
time lived entirely at Tycho’s expense,the conventional rules of astrology, and
writing by way of return essays againstwas quite prepared to take fees for so
Reymers and another man, who had105doing, although he had very little faith
50claimed the credit of the Tychonicin them, preferring his own fanciful
system. This Kepler could do with aideas.
clear conscience, as it was only a

18. The Emperor most likely endorsed Kepler and other astrologists because

19 / 52

The following passage is taken fromquestion of priority and did not involve
Kepler by Walter W. Bryant discussingany support of the system, which he
Kepler’s relationship with Tycho, a55deemed far inferior to that of
fellow astronomer.Copernicus. The following year saw
friction between the two astronomers,
The association of Kepler with Tychoand we learn from Kepler’s abject letter
was one of the most importantof apology that he was entirely in the
landmarks in the history of astronomy.60wrong. It was about money matters,
The younger man hoped, by the aid ofwhich in one way or another embittered
5Tycho’s planetary observations, tothe rest of Kepler’s life, and it arose
obtain better support for some of hisduring his absence from Prague. On his
fanciful speculative theories, while thereturn in September, 1601, Tycho
latter, who had certainly not gained in65presented him to the Emperor, who gave
prestige by leaving Denmark, was inhim the title of Imperial Mathematician,
10great need of a competent staff ofon condition of assisting Tycho in his
assistants. Of the two it would almostcalculations, the very thing Kepler was
seem that Tycho thought himself themost anxious to be allowed to do: for
greater gainer, for in spite of his70nowhere else in the world was there
reputation for brusqueness and want ofsuch a collection of good observations
15consideration, he not only made light ofsufficient for his purpose of reforming
Kepler’s apology in the matter ofthe whole theory of astronomy.
Reymers, but treated him with uniform
kindness in the face of great rudenessThe Emperor’s interest was still mainly
and ingratitude. He begged him to come75with astrology, but he liked to think that
20“as a welcome friend,” though Kepler,his name would be handed down to
very touchy on the subject of his ownposterity in connection with the new
astronomical powers, was afraid hePlanetary Tables in the same way as that
might be regarded as simply aof Alphonso of Castile, and he made
subordinate assistant. An arrangement80liberal promises to pay the expenses.
25had been suggested by which KeplerTycho’s other principal assistant,
should obtain two years’ leave ofLongomontanus, did not stay long after
absence from Gratz on full pay, which,giving up the Mars observations to
because of the higher cost of living inKepler, but instead of working at the
Prague, should be supplemented by the85new lunar theory, suddenly left to take
30Emperor; but before this could beup a professorship of astronomy in his
concluded, Kepler threw up hisnative Denmark.
professorship, and thinking he had
thereby also lost the chance of going toVery shortly afterwards Tycho himself
Prague, applied to Maestlin and othersdied of acute distemper; Kepler began to
35of his Tübingen friends to make interest90prepare the mass of manuscripts for
for him with the Duke of Wurtembergpublication, but, as everything was
and secure the professorship ofclaimed by the Brahe family, he was not
medicine. Tycho, however, still urgedallowed to finish the work. He
him to come to Prague, promising to dosucceeded to Tycho’s post of principal
40his utmost to secure for him a95mathematician to the Emperor, at a
permanent appointment, or in any eventreduced official salary, which owing to
to see that he was not the loser bythe emptiness of the Imperial treasury
coming. was almost always in arrears. In order to
meet his expenses he had recourse to the
Kepler was delayed by illness on the100casting of nativities, for which he
45way, but ultimately reached Prague,gained considerable reputation and
accompanied by his wife, and for somereceived very good pay. He worked by
time lived entirely at Tycho’s expense,the conventional rules of astrology, and
writing by way of return essays againstwas quite prepared to take fees for so
Reymers and another man, who had105doing, although he had very little faith
50claimed the credit of the Tychonicin them, preferring his own fanciful
system. This Kepler could do with aideas.
clear conscience, as it was only a

19. Which choice best provides evidence for the answer to the previous question?

20 / 52

The following passage is taken fromquestion of priority and did not involve
Kepler by Walter W. Bryant discussingany support of the system, which he
Kepler’s relationship with Tycho, a55deemed far inferior to that of
fellow astronomer.Copernicus. The following year saw
friction between the two astronomers,
The association of Kepler with Tychoand we learn from Kepler’s abject letter
was one of the most importantof apology that he was entirely in the
landmarks in the history of astronomy.60wrong. It was about money matters,
The younger man hoped, by the aid ofwhich in one way or another embittered
5Tycho’s planetary observations, tothe rest of Kepler’s life, and it arose
obtain better support for some of hisduring his absence from Prague. On his
fanciful speculative theories, while thereturn in September, 1601, Tycho
latter, who had certainly not gained in65presented him to the Emperor, who gave
prestige by leaving Denmark, was inhim the title of Imperial Mathematician,
10great need of a competent staff ofon condition of assisting Tycho in his
assistants. Of the two it would almostcalculations, the very thing Kepler was
seem that Tycho thought himself themost anxious to be allowed to do: for
greater gainer, for in spite of his70nowhere else in the world was there
reputation for brusqueness and want ofsuch a collection of good observations
15consideration, he not only made light ofsufficient for his purpose of reforming
Kepler’s apology in the matter ofthe whole theory of astronomy.
Reymers, but treated him with uniform
kindness in the face of great rudenessThe Emperor’s interest was still mainly
and ingratitude. He begged him to come75with astrology, but he liked to think that
20“as a welcome friend,” though Kepler,his name would be handed down to
very touchy on the subject of his ownposterity in connection with the new
astronomical powers, was afraid hePlanetary Tables in the same way as that
might be regarded as simply aof Alphonso of Castile, and he made
subordinate assistant. An arrangement80liberal promises to pay the expenses.
25had been suggested by which KeplerTycho’s other principal assistant,
should obtain two years’ leave ofLongomontanus, did not stay long after
absence from Gratz on full pay, which,giving up the Mars observations to
because of the higher cost of living inKepler, but instead of working at the
Prague, should be supplemented by the85new lunar theory, suddenly left to take
30Emperor; but before this could beup a professorship of astronomy in his
concluded, Kepler threw up hisnative Denmark.
professorship, and thinking he had
thereby also lost the chance of going toVery shortly afterwards Tycho himself
Prague, applied to Maestlin and othersdied of acute distemper; Kepler began to
35of his Tübingen friends to make interest90prepare the mass of manuscripts for
for him with the Duke of Wurtembergpublication, but, as everything was
and secure the professorship ofclaimed by the Brahe family, he was not
medicine. Tycho, however, still urgedallowed to finish the work. He
him to come to Prague, promising to dosucceeded to Tycho’s post of principal
40his utmost to secure for him a95mathematician to the Emperor, at a
permanent appointment, or in any eventreduced official salary, which owing to
to see that he was not the loser bythe emptiness of the Imperial treasury
coming. was almost always in arrears. In order to
meet his expenses he had recourse to the
Kepler was delayed by illness on the100casting of nativities, for which he
45way, but ultimately reached Prague,gained considerable reputation and
accompanied by his wife, and for somereceived very good pay. He worked by
time lived entirely at Tycho’s expense,the conventional rules of astrology, and
writing by way of return essays againstwas quite prepared to take fees for so
Reymers and another man, who had105doing, although he had very little faith
50claimed the credit of the Tychonicin them, preferring his own fanciful
system. This Kepler could do with aideas.
clear conscience, as it was only a

20. As used in line 94, “post” most nearly means

21 / 52

The following passage is taken fromquestion of priority and did not involve
Kepler by Walter W. Bryant discussingany support of the system, which he
Kepler’s relationship with Tycho, a55deemed far inferior to that of
fellow astronomer.Copernicus. The following year saw
friction between the two astronomers,
The association of Kepler with Tychoand we learn from Kepler’s abject letter
was one of the most importantof apology that he was entirely in the
landmarks in the history of astronomy.60wrong. It was about money matters,
The younger man hoped, by the aid ofwhich in one way or another embittered
5Tycho’s planetary observations, tothe rest of Kepler’s life, and it arose
obtain better support for some of hisduring his absence from Prague. On his
fanciful speculative theories, while thereturn in September, 1601, Tycho
latter, who had certainly not gained in65presented him to the Emperor, who gave
prestige by leaving Denmark, was inhim the title of Imperial Mathematician,
10great need of a competent staff ofon condition of assisting Tycho in his
assistants. Of the two it would almostcalculations, the very thing Kepler was
seem that Tycho thought himself themost anxious to be allowed to do: for
greater gainer, for in spite of his70nowhere else in the world was there
reputation for brusqueness and want ofsuch a collection of good observations
15consideration, he not only made light ofsufficient for his purpose of reforming
Kepler’s apology in the matter ofthe whole theory of astronomy.
Reymers, but treated him with uniform
kindness in the face of great rudenessThe Emperor’s interest was still mainly
and ingratitude. He begged him to come75with astrology, but he liked to think that
20“as a welcome friend,” though Kepler,his name would be handed down to
very touchy on the subject of his ownposterity in connection with the new
astronomical powers, was afraid hePlanetary Tables in the same way as that
might be regarded as simply aof Alphonso of Castile, and he made
subordinate assistant. An arrangement80liberal promises to pay the expenses.
25had been suggested by which KeplerTycho’s other principal assistant,
should obtain two years’ leave ofLongomontanus, did not stay long after
absence from Gratz on full pay, which,giving up the Mars observations to
because of the higher cost of living inKepler, but instead of working at the
Prague, should be supplemented by the85new lunar theory, suddenly left to take
30Emperor; but before this could beup a professorship of astronomy in his
concluded, Kepler threw up hisnative Denmark.
professorship, and thinking he had
thereby also lost the chance of going toVery shortly afterwards Tycho himself
Prague, applied to Maestlin and othersdied of acute distemper; Kepler began to
35of his Tübingen friends to make interest90prepare the mass of manuscripts for
for him with the Duke of Wurtembergpublication, but, as everything was
and secure the professorship ofclaimed by the Brahe family, he was not
medicine. Tycho, however, still urgedallowed to finish the work. He
him to come to Prague, promising to dosucceeded to Tycho’s post of principal
40his utmost to secure for him a95mathematician to the Emperor, at a
permanent appointment, or in any eventreduced official salary, which owing to
to see that he was not the loser bythe emptiness of the Imperial treasury
coming. was almost always in arrears. In order to
meet his expenses he had recourse to the
Kepler was delayed by illness on the100casting of nativities, for which he
45way, but ultimately reached Prague,gained considerable reputation and
accompanied by his wife, and for somereceived very good pay. He worked by
time lived entirely at Tycho’s expense,the conventional rules of astrology, and
writing by way of return essays againstwas quite prepared to take fees for so
Reymers and another man, who had105doing, although he had very little faith
50claimed the credit of the Tychonicin them, preferring his own fanciful
system. This Kepler could do with aideas.
clear conscience, as it was only a

21. The graph helps support which of the following arguments?

22 / 52

The first edited passage is from Birds ofwhich the hills have newly donned. The
the Indian Hills by Douglas Dewar whichfoliage is green and luxuriant. Waterfalls,
discusses Himalayan bird habitat.cascades, mighty torrents and rivulets
Passage 2 taken from Birds in Town and55abound. Himachal has been converted
Village by W. H. Hudson is about exoticinto fairyland by the monsoon rains.
birds found in Britain.
A remarkable feature of the Himalayas is
Passage 1the abruptness with which they rise from
the plains in most places. In some parts
Himalayan birds inhabit what is perhaps60there are low foothills; but speaking
the most wonderful tract of country in thegenerally the mountains that rise from the
world. The Himalayas are not so much aplain attain a height of 4000 or 5000 feet.
chain of mountains as a mountainous
5country, some eighty miles broad andPassage 2
several hundred long—a country
composed entirely of mountains andThere are countries with a less fertile soil
valleys with no large plains or broadand a worse climate than ours, yet richer
plateaux.65in bird life. Nevertheless, England is not
poor; the species are not few in number,
10There is a saying of an ancient Sanskritand some are extremely abundant.
poet which, being translated into English,Unfortunately many of the finer kinds
runs: “In a hundred ages of the gods Ihave been too much sought after;
could not tell you of the glories of70persecuted first for their beauty, then for
Himachal.” This every writer on thingstheir rarity, until now we are threatened
15Himalayan contrives to drag into hiswith their total destruction. As these
composition. Some begin with thekinds become unobtainable, those which
quotation, while others reserve it for thestand next in the order of beauty and
last, and make it do duty for the epigram75rarity are persecuted in their turn; and in a
which stylists assure us should terminatecountry as densely populated as ours,
20every essay.where birds cannot hide themselves from
human eyes, such persecution must
There are some who quote the Indianeventually cause their extinction.
sage only to mock him. Such assert that80Meanwhile the bird population does not
the beauties of the Himalayas have beendecrease. Every place in nature, like
greatly exaggerated—that, as regardsevery property in Chancery, has more
25grandeur, their scenery comparesthan one claimant to it—sometimes the
unfavorably with that of the Andes, whileclaimants are many—and so long as the
their beauty is surpassed by that of the85dispute lasts all live out of the estate. For
Alps. Not having seen the Andes, I amthere are always two or more species
unable to criticize the assertion regardingsubsisting on the same kind of food,
30the grandeur of the Himalayas, but I findpossessing similar habits, and frequenting
it difficult to imagine anything finer thanthe same localities. It is consequently
their scenery.90impossible for man to exterminate any
one species without indirectly benefiting
As regards beauty, the Himalayas at theirsome other species, which attracts him in
best surpass the Alps, because theya less degree, or not at all. This is
35exhibit far more variety, and presentunfortunate, for as the bright kinds, or
everything on a grander scale.95those we esteem most, diminish in
The Himalayas are a kind of Dr. Jekyllnumbers the less interesting kinds
and Mr. Hyde. They have two faces—themultiply, and we lose much of the
fair and the plain. In May they are at theirpleasure which bird life is fitted to give
40worst. Those of the hillsides which areus. When we visit woods, or other places
not afforested are brown, arid, and100to which birds chiefly resort, in districts
desolate, and the valleys, in addition touninhabited by man, or where he pays
being unpleasantly hot, are dry and dusty.little or no attention to the feathered
The foliage of the trees lacks freshness,creatures, the variety of the bird life
45and everywhere there is a remarkableencountered affords a new and peculiar
absence of water, save in the valleys105delight. There is a constant succession of
through which the rivers flow. On thenew forms and new voices; in a single
other hand, September is the month inday as many species may be met with as
which the Himalayas attain perfection orone would find in England by searching
50something approaching it. The eye isdiligently for a whole year.
refreshed by the bright emerald garment

22. The tone of the author in Passage 1 is one of

23 / 52

The first edited passage is from Birds ofwhich the hills have newly donned. The
the Indian Hills by Douglas Dewar whichfoliage is green and luxuriant. Waterfalls,
discusses Himalayan bird habitat.cascades, mighty torrents and rivulets
Passage 2 taken from Birds in Town and55abound. Himachal has been converted
Village by W. H. Hudson is about exoticinto fairyland by the monsoon rains.
birds found in Britain.
A remarkable feature of the Himalayas is
Passage 1the abruptness with which they rise from
the plains in most places. In some parts
Himalayan birds inhabit what is perhaps60there are low foothills; but speaking
the most wonderful tract of country in thegenerally the mountains that rise from the
world. The Himalayas are not so much aplain attain a height of 4000 or 5000 feet.
chain of mountains as a mountainous
5country, some eighty miles broad andPassage 2
several hundred long—a country
composed entirely of mountains andThere are countries with a less fertile soil
valleys with no large plains or broadand a worse climate than ours, yet richer
plateaux.65in bird life. Nevertheless, England is not
poor; the species are not few in number,
10There is a saying of an ancient Sanskritand some are extremely abundant.
poet which, being translated into English,Unfortunately many of the finer kinds
runs: “In a hundred ages of the gods Ihave been too much sought after;
could not tell you of the glories of70persecuted first for their beauty, then for
Himachal.” This every writer on thingstheir rarity, until now we are threatened
15Himalayan contrives to drag into hiswith their total destruction. As these
composition. Some begin with thekinds become unobtainable, those which
quotation, while others reserve it for thestand next in the order of beauty and
last, and make it do duty for the epigram75rarity are persecuted in their turn; and in a
which stylists assure us should terminatecountry as densely populated as ours,
20every essay.where birds cannot hide themselves from
human eyes, such persecution must
There are some who quote the Indianeventually cause their extinction.
sage only to mock him. Such assert that80Meanwhile the bird population does not
the beauties of the Himalayas have beendecrease. Every place in nature, like
greatly exaggerated—that, as regardsevery property in Chancery, has more
25grandeur, their scenery comparesthan one claimant to it—sometimes the
unfavorably with that of the Andes, whileclaimants are many—and so long as the
their beauty is surpassed by that of the85dispute lasts all live out of the estate. For
Alps. Not having seen the Andes, I amthere are always two or more species
unable to criticize the assertion regardingsubsisting on the same kind of food,
30the grandeur of the Himalayas, but I findpossessing similar habits, and frequenting
it difficult to imagine anything finer thanthe same localities. It is consequently
their scenery.90impossible for man to exterminate any
one species without indirectly benefiting
As regards beauty, the Himalayas at theirsome other species, which attracts him in
best surpass the Alps, because theya less degree, or not at all. This is
35exhibit far more variety, and presentunfortunate, for as the bright kinds, or
everything on a grander scale.95those we esteem most, diminish in
The Himalayas are a kind of Dr. Jekyllnumbers the less interesting kinds
and Mr. Hyde. They have two faces—themultiply, and we lose much of the
fair and the plain. In May they are at theirpleasure which bird life is fitted to give
40worst. Those of the hillsides which areus. When we visit woods, or other places
not afforested are brown, arid, and100to which birds chiefly resort, in districts
desolate, and the valleys, in addition touninhabited by man, or where he pays
being unpleasantly hot, are dry and dusty.little or no attention to the feathered
The foliage of the trees lacks freshness,creatures, the variety of the bird life
45and everywhere there is a remarkableencountered affords a new and peculiar
absence of water, save in the valleys105delight. There is a constant succession of
through which the rivers flow. On thenew forms and new voices; in a single
other hand, September is the month inday as many species may be met with as
which the Himalayas attain perfection orone would find in England by searching
50something approaching it. The eye isdiligently for a whole year.
refreshed by the bright emerald garment

23. Which choice best provides evidence for the answer to the previous question?

24 / 52

The first edited passage is from Birds ofwhich the hills have newly donned. The
the Indian Hills by Douglas Dewar whichfoliage is green and luxuriant. Waterfalls,
discusses Himalayan bird habitat.cascades, mighty torrents and rivulets
Passage 2 taken from Birds in Town and55abound. Himachal has been converted
Village by W. H. Hudson is about exoticinto fairyland by the monsoon rains.
birds found in Britain.
A remarkable feature of the Himalayas is
Passage 1the abruptness with which they rise from
the plains in most places. In some parts
Himalayan birds inhabit what is perhaps60there are low foothills; but speaking
the most wonderful tract of country in thegenerally the mountains that rise from the
world. The Himalayas are not so much aplain attain a height of 4000 or 5000 feet.
chain of mountains as a mountainous
5country, some eighty miles broad andPassage 2
several hundred long—a country
composed entirely of mountains andThere are countries with a less fertile soil
valleys with no large plains or broadand a worse climate than ours, yet richer
plateaux.65in bird life. Nevertheless, England is not
poor; the species are not few in number,
10There is a saying of an ancient Sanskritand some are extremely abundant.
poet which, being translated into English,Unfortunately many of the finer kinds
runs: “In a hundred ages of the gods Ihave been too much sought after;
could not tell you of the glories of70persecuted first for their beauty, then for
Himachal.” This every writer on thingstheir rarity, until now we are threatened
15Himalayan contrives to drag into hiswith their total destruction. As these
composition. Some begin with thekinds become unobtainable, those which
quotation, while others reserve it for thestand next in the order of beauty and
last, and make it do duty for the epigram75rarity are persecuted in their turn; and in a
which stylists assure us should terminatecountry as densely populated as ours,
20every essay.where birds cannot hide themselves from
human eyes, such persecution must
There are some who quote the Indianeventually cause their extinction.
sage only to mock him. Such assert that80Meanwhile the bird population does not
the beauties of the Himalayas have beendecrease. Every place in nature, like
greatly exaggerated—that, as regardsevery property in Chancery, has more
25grandeur, their scenery comparesthan one claimant to it—sometimes the
unfavorably with that of the Andes, whileclaimants are many—and so long as the
their beauty is surpassed by that of the85dispute lasts all live out of the estate. For
Alps. Not having seen the Andes, I amthere are always two or more species
unable to criticize the assertion regardingsubsisting on the same kind of food,
30the grandeur of the Himalayas, but I findpossessing similar habits, and frequenting
it difficult to imagine anything finer thanthe same localities. It is consequently
their scenery.90impossible for man to exterminate any
one species without indirectly benefiting
As regards beauty, the Himalayas at theirsome other species, which attracts him in
best surpass the Alps, because theya less degree, or not at all. This is
35exhibit far more variety, and presentunfortunate, for as the bright kinds, or
everything on a grander scale.95those we esteem most, diminish in
The Himalayas are a kind of Dr. Jekyllnumbers the less interesting kinds
and Mr. Hyde. They have two faces—themultiply, and we lose much of the
fair and the plain. In May they are at theirpleasure which bird life is fitted to give
40worst. Those of the hillsides which areus. When we visit woods, or other places
not afforested are brown, arid, and100to which birds chiefly resort, in districts
desolate, and the valleys, in addition touninhabited by man, or where he pays
being unpleasantly hot, are dry and dusty.little or no attention to the feathered
The foliage of the trees lacks freshness,creatures, the variety of the bird life
45and everywhere there is a remarkableencountered affords a new and peculiar
absence of water, save in the valleys105delight. There is a constant succession of
through which the rivers flow. On thenew forms and new voices; in a single
other hand, September is the month inday as many species may be met with as
which the Himalayas attain perfection orone would find in England by searching
50something approaching it. The eye isdiligently for a whole year.
refreshed by the bright emerald garment

24. The author of Passage 1 most likely uses a saying from an ancient Sanskrit poet to

25 / 52

The first edited passage is from Birds ofwhich the hills have newly donned. The
the Indian Hills by Douglas Dewar whichfoliage is green and luxuriant. Waterfalls,
discusses Himalayan bird habitat.cascades, mighty torrents and rivulets
Passage 2 taken from Birds in Town and55abound. Himachal has been converted
Village by W. H. Hudson is about exoticinto fairyland by the monsoon rains.
birds found in Britain.
A remarkable feature of the Himalayas is
Passage 1the abruptness with which they rise from
the plains in most places. In some parts
Himalayan birds inhabit what is perhaps60there are low foothills; but speaking
the most wonderful tract of country in thegenerally the mountains that rise from the
world. The Himalayas are not so much aplain attain a height of 4000 or 5000 feet.
chain of mountains as a mountainous
5country, some eighty miles broad andPassage 2
several hundred long—a country
composed entirely of mountains andThere are countries with a less fertile soil
valleys with no large plains or broadand a worse climate than ours, yet richer
plateaux.65in bird life. Nevertheless, England is not
poor; the species are not few in number,
10There is a saying of an ancient Sanskritand some are extremely abundant.
poet which, being translated into English,Unfortunately many of the finer kinds
runs: “In a hundred ages of the gods Ihave been too much sought after;
could not tell you of the glories of70persecuted first for their beauty, then for
Himachal.” This every writer on thingstheir rarity, until now we are threatened
15Himalayan contrives to drag into hiswith their total destruction. As these
composition. Some begin with thekinds become unobtainable, those which
quotation, while others reserve it for thestand next in the order of beauty and
last, and make it do duty for the epigram75rarity are persecuted in their turn; and in a
which stylists assure us should terminatecountry as densely populated as ours,
20every essay.where birds cannot hide themselves from
human eyes, such persecution must
There are some who quote the Indianeventually cause their extinction.
sage only to mock him. Such assert that80Meanwhile the bird population does not
the beauties of the Himalayas have beendecrease. Every place in nature, like
greatly exaggerated—that, as regardsevery property in Chancery, has more
25grandeur, their scenery comparesthan one claimant to it—sometimes the
unfavorably with that of the Andes, whileclaimants are many—and so long as the
their beauty is surpassed by that of the85dispute lasts all live out of the estate. For
Alps. Not having seen the Andes, I amthere are always two or more species
unable to criticize the assertion regardingsubsisting on the same kind of food,
30the grandeur of the Himalayas, but I findpossessing similar habits, and frequenting
it difficult to imagine anything finer thanthe same localities. It is consequently
their scenery.90impossible for man to exterminate any
one species without indirectly benefiting
As regards beauty, the Himalayas at theirsome other species, which attracts him in
best surpass the Alps, because theya less degree, or not at all. This is
35exhibit far more variety, and presentunfortunate, for as the bright kinds, or
everything on a grander scale.95those we esteem most, diminish in
The Himalayas are a kind of Dr. Jekyllnumbers the less interesting kinds
and Mr. Hyde. They have two faces—themultiply, and we lose much of the
fair and the plain. In May they are at theirpleasure which bird life is fitted to give
40worst. Those of the hillsides which areus. When we visit woods, or other places
not afforested are brown, arid, and100to which birds chiefly resort, in districts
desolate, and the valleys, in addition touninhabited by man, or where he pays
being unpleasantly hot, are dry and dusty.little or no attention to the feathered
The foliage of the trees lacks freshness,creatures, the variety of the bird life
45and everywhere there is a remarkableencountered affords a new and peculiar
absence of water, save in the valleys105delight. There is a constant succession of
through which the rivers flow. On thenew forms and new voices; in a single
other hand, September is the month inday as many species may be met with as
which the Himalayas attain perfection orone would find in England by searching
50something approaching it. The eye isdiligently for a whole year.
refreshed by the bright emerald garment

25. When the author mentions Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, he most likely expects the readers to

26 / 52

The first edited passage is from Birds ofwhich the hills have newly donned. The
the Indian Hills by Douglas Dewar whichfoliage is green and luxuriant. Waterfalls,
discusses Himalayan bird habitat.cascades, mighty torrents and rivulets
Passage 2 taken from Birds in Town and55abound. Himachal has been converted
Village by W. H. Hudson is about exoticinto fairyland by the monsoon rains.
birds found in Britain.
A remarkable feature of the Himalayas is
Passage 1the abruptness with which they rise from
the plains in most places. In some parts
Himalayan birds inhabit what is perhaps60there are low foothills; but speaking
the most wonderful tract of country in thegenerally the mountains that rise from the
world. The Himalayas are not so much aplain attain a height of 4000 or 5000 feet.
chain of mountains as a mountainous
5country, some eighty miles broad andPassage 2
several hundred long—a country
composed entirely of mountains andThere are countries with a less fertile soil
valleys with no large plains or broadand a worse climate than ours, yet richer
plateaux.65in bird life. Nevertheless, England is not
poor; the species are not few in number,
10There is a saying of an ancient Sanskritand some are extremely abundant.
poet which, being translated into English,Unfortunately many of the finer kinds
runs: “In a hundred ages of the gods Ihave been too much sought after;
could not tell you of the glories of70persecuted first for their beauty, then for
Himachal.” This every writer on thingstheir rarity, until now we are threatened
15Himalayan contrives to drag into hiswith their total destruction. As these
composition. Some begin with thekinds become unobtainable, those which
quotation, while others reserve it for thestand next in the order of beauty and
last, and make it do duty for the epigram75rarity are persecuted in their turn; and in a
which stylists assure us should terminatecountry as densely populated as ours,
20every essay.where birds cannot hide themselves from
human eyes, such persecution must
There are some who quote the Indianeventually cause their extinction.
sage only to mock him. Such assert that80Meanwhile the bird population does not
the beauties of the Himalayas have beendecrease. Every place in nature, like
greatly exaggerated—that, as regardsevery property in Chancery, has more
25grandeur, their scenery comparesthan one claimant to it—sometimes the
unfavorably with that of the Andes, whileclaimants are many—and so long as the
their beauty is surpassed by that of the85dispute lasts all live out of the estate. For
Alps. Not having seen the Andes, I amthere are always two or more species
unable to criticize the assertion regardingsubsisting on the same kind of food,
30the grandeur of the Himalayas, but I findpossessing similar habits, and frequenting
it difficult to imagine anything finer thanthe same localities. It is consequently
their scenery.90impossible for man to exterminate any
one species without indirectly benefiting
As regards beauty, the Himalayas at theirsome other species, which attracts him in
best surpass the Alps, because theya less degree, or not at all. This is
35exhibit far more variety, and presentunfortunate, for as the bright kinds, or
everything on a grander scale.95those we esteem most, diminish in
The Himalayas are a kind of Dr. Jekyllnumbers the less interesting kinds
and Mr. Hyde. They have two faces—themultiply, and we lose much of the
fair and the plain. In May they are at theirpleasure which bird life is fitted to give
40worst. Those of the hillsides which areus. When we visit woods, or other places
not afforested are brown, arid, and100to which birds chiefly resort, in districts
desolate, and the valleys, in addition touninhabited by man, or where he pays
being unpleasantly hot, are dry and dusty.little or no attention to the feathered
The foliage of the trees lacks freshness,creatures, the variety of the bird life
45and everywhere there is a remarkableencountered affords a new and peculiar
absence of water, save in the valleys105delight. There is a constant succession of
through which the rivers flow. On thenew forms and new voices; in a single
other hand, September is the month inday as many species may be met with as
which the Himalayas attain perfection orone would find in England by searching
50something approaching it. The eye isdiligently for a whole year.
refreshed by the bright emerald garment

26. All of the following are mentioned about the Himalayas EXCEPT that

27 / 52

The first edited passage is from Birds ofwhich the hills have newly donned. The
the Indian Hills by Douglas Dewar whichfoliage is green and luxuriant. Waterfalls,
discusses Himalayan bird habitat.cascades, mighty torrents and rivulets
Passage 2 taken from Birds in Town and55abound. Himachal has been converted
Village by W. H. Hudson is about exoticinto fairyland by the monsoon rains.
birds found in Britain.
A remarkable feature of the Himalayas is
Passage 1the abruptness with which they rise from
the plains in most places. In some parts
Himalayan birds inhabit what is perhaps60there are low foothills; but speaking
the most wonderful tract of country in thegenerally the mountains that rise from the
world. The Himalayas are not so much aplain attain a height of 4000 or 5000 feet.
chain of mountains as a mountainous
5country, some eighty miles broad andPassage 2
several hundred long—a country
composed entirely of mountains andThere are countries with a less fertile soil
valleys with no large plains or broadand a worse climate than ours, yet richer
plateaux.65in bird life. Nevertheless, England is not
poor; the species are not few in number,
10There is a saying of an ancient Sanskritand some are extremely abundant.
poet which, being translated into English,Unfortunately many of the finer kinds
runs: “In a hundred ages of the gods Ihave been too much sought after;
could not tell you of the glories of70persecuted first for their beauty, then for
Himachal.” This every writer on thingstheir rarity, until now we are threatened
15Himalayan contrives to drag into hiswith their total destruction. As these
composition. Some begin with thekinds become unobtainable, those which
quotation, while others reserve it for thestand next in the order of beauty and
last, and make it do duty for the epigram75rarity are persecuted in their turn; and in a
which stylists assure us should terminatecountry as densely populated as ours,
20every essay.where birds cannot hide themselves from
human eyes, such persecution must
There are some who quote the Indianeventually cause their extinction.
sage only to mock him. Such assert that80Meanwhile the bird population does not
the beauties of the Himalayas have beendecrease. Every place in nature, like
greatly exaggerated—that, as regardsevery property in Chancery, has more
25grandeur, their scenery comparesthan one claimant to it—sometimes the
unfavorably with that of the Andes, whileclaimants are many—and so long as the
their beauty is surpassed by that of the85dispute lasts all live out of the estate. For
Alps. Not having seen the Andes, I amthere are always two or more species
unable to criticize the assertion regardingsubsisting on the same kind of food,
30the grandeur of the Himalayas, but I findpossessing similar habits, and frequenting
it difficult to imagine anything finer thanthe same localities. It is consequently
their scenery.90impossible for man to exterminate any
one species without indirectly benefiting
As regards beauty, the Himalayas at theirsome other species, which attracts him in
best surpass the Alps, because theya less degree, or not at all. This is
35exhibit far more variety, and presentunfortunate, for as the bright kinds, or
everything on a grander scale.95those we esteem most, diminish in
The Himalayas are a kind of Dr. Jekyllnumbers the less interesting kinds
and Mr. Hyde. They have two faces—themultiply, and we lose much of the
fair and the plain. In May they are at theirpleasure which bird life is fitted to give
40worst. Those of the hillsides which areus. When we visit woods, or other places
not afforested are brown, arid, and100to which birds chiefly resort, in districts
desolate, and the valleys, in addition touninhabited by man, or where he pays
being unpleasantly hot, are dry and dusty.little or no attention to the feathered
The foliage of the trees lacks freshness,creatures, the variety of the bird life
45and everywhere there is a remarkableencountered affords a new and peculiar
absence of water, save in the valleys105delight. There is a constant succession of
through which the rivers flow. On thenew forms and new voices; in a single
other hand, September is the month inday as many species may be met with as
which the Himalayas attain perfection orone would find in England by searching
50something approaching it. The eye isdiligently for a whole year.
refreshed by the bright emerald garment

27. As used in line 19, “terminate” most nearly means

28 / 52

The first edited passage is from Birds ofwhich the hills have newly donned. The
the Indian Hills by Douglas Dewar whichfoliage is green and luxuriant. Waterfalls,
discusses Himalayan bird habitat.cascades, mighty torrents and rivulets
Passage 2 taken from Birds in Town and55abound. Himachal has been converted
Village by W. H. Hudson is about exoticinto fairyland by the monsoon rains.
birds found in Britain.
A remarkable feature of the Himalayas is
Passage 1the abruptness with which they rise from
the plains in most places. In some parts
Himalayan birds inhabit what is perhaps60there are low foothills; but speaking
the most wonderful tract of country in thegenerally the mountains that rise from the
world. The Himalayas are not so much aplain attain a height of 4000 or 5000 feet.
chain of mountains as a mountainous
5country, some eighty miles broad andPassage 2
several hundred long—a country
composed entirely of mountains andThere are countries with a less fertile soil
valleys with no large plains or broadand a worse climate than ours, yet richer
plateaux.65in bird life. Nevertheless, England is not
poor; the species are not few in number,
10There is a saying of an ancient Sanskritand some are extremely abundant.
poet which, being translated into English,Unfortunately many of the finer kinds
runs: “In a hundred ages of the gods Ihave been too much sought after;
could not tell you of the glories of70persecuted first for their beauty, then for
Himachal.” This every writer on thingstheir rarity, until now we are threatened
15Himalayan contrives to drag into hiswith their total destruction. As these
composition. Some begin with thekinds become unobtainable, those which
quotation, while others reserve it for thestand next in the order of beauty and
last, and make it do duty for the epigram75rarity are persecuted in their turn; and in a
which stylists assure us should terminatecountry as densely populated as ours,
20every essay.where birds cannot hide themselves from
human eyes, such persecution must
There are some who quote the Indianeventually cause their extinction.
sage only to mock him. Such assert that80Meanwhile the bird population does not
the beauties of the Himalayas have beendecrease. Every place in nature, like
greatly exaggerated—that, as regardsevery property in Chancery, has more
25grandeur, their scenery comparesthan one claimant to it—sometimes the
unfavorably with that of the Andes, whileclaimants are many—and so long as the
their beauty is surpassed by that of the85dispute lasts all live out of the estate. For
Alps. Not having seen the Andes, I amthere are always two or more species
unable to criticize the assertion regardingsubsisting on the same kind of food,
30the grandeur of the Himalayas, but I findpossessing similar habits, and frequenting
it difficult to imagine anything finer thanthe same localities. It is consequently
their scenery.90impossible for man to exterminate any
one species without indirectly benefiting
As regards beauty, the Himalayas at theirsome other species, which attracts him in
best surpass the Alps, because theya less degree, or not at all. This is
35exhibit far more variety, and presentunfortunate, for as the bright kinds, or
everything on a grander scale.95those we esteem most, diminish in
The Himalayas are a kind of Dr. Jekyllnumbers the less interesting kinds
and Mr. Hyde. They have two faces—themultiply, and we lose much of the
fair and the plain. In May they are at theirpleasure which bird life is fitted to give
40worst. Those of the hillsides which areus. When we visit woods, or other places
not afforested are brown, arid, and100to which birds chiefly resort, in districts
desolate, and the valleys, in addition touninhabited by man, or where he pays
being unpleasantly hot, are dry and dusty.little or no attention to the feathered
The foliage of the trees lacks freshness,creatures, the variety of the bird life
45and everywhere there is a remarkableencountered affords a new and peculiar
absence of water, save in the valleys105delight. There is a constant succession of
through which the rivers flow. On thenew forms and new voices; in a single
other hand, September is the month inday as many species may be met with as
which the Himalayas attain perfection orone would find in England by searching
50something approaching it. The eye isdiligently for a whole year.
refreshed by the bright emerald garment

28. The main idea of Passage 2 is to

29 / 52

The first edited passage is from Birds ofwhich the hills have newly donned. The
the Indian Hills by Douglas Dewar whichfoliage is green and luxuriant. Waterfalls,
discusses Himalayan bird habitat.cascades, mighty torrents and rivulets
Passage 2 taken from Birds in Town and55abound. Himachal has been converted
Village by W. H. Hudson is about exoticinto fairyland by the monsoon rains.
birds found in Britain.
A remarkable feature of the Himalayas is
Passage 1the abruptness with which they rise from
the plains in most places. In some parts
Himalayan birds inhabit what is perhaps60there are low foothills; but speaking
the most wonderful tract of country in thegenerally the mountains that rise from the
world. The Himalayas are not so much aplain attain a height of 4000 or 5000 feet.
chain of mountains as a mountainous
5country, some eighty miles broad andPassage 2
several hundred long—a country
composed entirely of mountains andThere are countries with a less fertile soil
valleys with no large plains or broadand a worse climate than ours, yet richer
plateaux.65in bird life. Nevertheless, England is not
poor; the species are not few in number,
10There is a saying of an ancient Sanskritand some are extremely abundant.
poet which, being translated into English,Unfortunately many of the finer kinds
runs: “In a hundred ages of the gods Ihave been too much sought after;
could not tell you of the glories of70persecuted first for their beauty, then for
Himachal.” This every writer on thingstheir rarity, until now we are threatened
15Himalayan contrives to drag into hiswith their total destruction. As these
composition. Some begin with thekinds become unobtainable, those which
quotation, while others reserve it for thestand next in the order of beauty and
last, and make it do duty for the epigram75rarity are persecuted in their turn; and in a
which stylists assure us should terminatecountry as densely populated as ours,
20every essay.where birds cannot hide themselves from
human eyes, such persecution must
There are some who quote the Indianeventually cause their extinction.
sage only to mock him. Such assert that80Meanwhile the bird population does not
the beauties of the Himalayas have beendecrease. Every place in nature, like
greatly exaggerated—that, as regardsevery property in Chancery, has more
25grandeur, their scenery comparesthan one claimant to it—sometimes the
unfavorably with that of the Andes, whileclaimants are many—and so long as the
their beauty is surpassed by that of the85dispute lasts all live out of the estate. For
Alps. Not having seen the Andes, I amthere are always two or more species
unable to criticize the assertion regardingsubsisting on the same kind of food,
30the grandeur of the Himalayas, but I findpossessing similar habits, and frequenting
it difficult to imagine anything finer thanthe same localities. It is consequently
their scenery.90impossible for man to exterminate any
one species without indirectly benefiting
As regards beauty, the Himalayas at theirsome other species, which attracts him in
best surpass the Alps, because theya less degree, or not at all. This is
35exhibit far more variety, and presentunfortunate, for as the bright kinds, or
everything on a grander scale.95those we esteem most, diminish in
The Himalayas are a kind of Dr. Jekyllnumbers the less interesting kinds
and Mr. Hyde. They have two faces—themultiply, and we lose much of the
fair and the plain. In May they are at theirpleasure which bird life is fitted to give
40worst. Those of the hillsides which areus. When we visit woods, or other places
not afforested are brown, arid, and100to which birds chiefly resort, in districts
desolate, and the valleys, in addition touninhabited by man, or where he pays
being unpleasantly hot, are dry and dusty.little or no attention to the feathered
The foliage of the trees lacks freshness,creatures, the variety of the bird life
45and everywhere there is a remarkableencountered affords a new and peculiar
absence of water, save in the valleys105delight. There is a constant succession of
through which the rivers flow. On thenew forms and new voices; in a single
other hand, September is the month inday as many species may be met with as
which the Himalayas attain perfection orone would find in England by searching
50something approaching it. The eye isdiligently for a whole year.
refreshed by the bright emerald garment

29. How does the style of Passage 1 differ from Passage 2?

30 / 52

The first edited passage is from Birds ofwhich the hills have newly donned. The
the Indian Hills by Douglas Dewar whichfoliage is green and luxuriant. Waterfalls,
discusses Himalayan bird habitat.cascades, mighty torrents and rivulets
Passage 2 taken from Birds in Town and55abound. Himachal has been converted
Village by W. H. Hudson is about exoticinto fairyland by the monsoon rains.
birds found in Britain.
A remarkable feature of the Himalayas is
Passage 1the abruptness with which they rise from
the plains in most places. In some parts
Himalayan birds inhabit what is perhaps60there are low foothills; but speaking
the most wonderful tract of country in thegenerally the mountains that rise from the
world. The Himalayas are not so much aplain attain a height of 4000 or 5000 feet.
chain of mountains as a mountainous
5country, some eighty miles broad andPassage 2
several hundred long—a country
composed entirely of mountains andThere are countries with a less fertile soil
valleys with no large plains or broadand a worse climate than ours, yet richer
plateaux.65in bird life. Nevertheless, England is not
poor; the species are not few in number,
10There is a saying of an ancient Sanskritand some are extremely abundant.
poet which, being translated into English,Unfortunately many of the finer kinds
runs: “In a hundred ages of the gods Ihave been too much sought after;
could not tell you of the glories of70persecuted first for their beauty, then for
Himachal.” This every writer on thingstheir rarity, until now we are threatened
15Himalayan contrives to drag into hiswith their total destruction. As these
composition. Some begin with thekinds become unobtainable, those which
quotation, while others reserve it for thestand next in the order of beauty and
last, and make it do duty for the epigram75rarity are persecuted in their turn; and in a
which stylists assure us should terminatecountry as densely populated as ours,
20every essay.where birds cannot hide themselves from
human eyes, such persecution must
There are some who quote the Indianeventually cause their extinction.
sage only to mock him. Such assert that80Meanwhile the bird population does not
the beauties of the Himalayas have beendecrease. Every place in nature, like
greatly exaggerated—that, as regardsevery property in Chancery, has more
25grandeur, their scenery comparesthan one claimant to it—sometimes the
unfavorably with that of the Andes, whileclaimants are many—and so long as the
their beauty is surpassed by that of the85dispute lasts all live out of the estate. For
Alps. Not having seen the Andes, I amthere are always two or more species
unable to criticize the assertion regardingsubsisting on the same kind of food,
30the grandeur of the Himalayas, but I findpossessing similar habits, and frequenting
it difficult to imagine anything finer thanthe same localities. It is consequently
their scenery.90impossible for man to exterminate any
one species without indirectly benefiting
As regards beauty, the Himalayas at theirsome other species, which attracts him in
best surpass the Alps, because theya less degree, or not at all. This is
35exhibit far more variety, and presentunfortunate, for as the bright kinds, or
everything on a grander scale.95those we esteem most, diminish in
The Himalayas are a kind of Dr. Jekyllnumbers the less interesting kinds
and Mr. Hyde. They have two faces—themultiply, and we lose much of the
fair and the plain. In May they are at theirpleasure which bird life is fitted to give
40worst. Those of the hillsides which areus. When we visit woods, or other places
not afforested are brown, arid, and100to which birds chiefly resort, in districts
desolate, and the valleys, in addition touninhabited by man, or where he pays
being unpleasantly hot, are dry and dusty.little or no attention to the feathered
The foliage of the trees lacks freshness,creatures, the variety of the bird life
45and everywhere there is a remarkableencountered affords a new and peculiar
absence of water, save in the valleys105delight. There is a constant succession of
through which the rivers flow. On thenew forms and new voices; in a single
other hand, September is the month inday as many species may be met with as
which the Himalayas attain perfection orone would find in England by searching
50something approaching it. The eye isdiligently for a whole year.
refreshed by the bright emerald garment

30. Which of the following statements best describes the author of Passage 2’s perception of the human population’s effect on birds?

31 / 52

The first edited passage is from Birds ofwhich the hills have newly donned. The
the Indian Hills by Douglas Dewar whichfoliage is green and luxuriant. Waterfalls,
discusses Himalayan bird habitat.cascades, mighty torrents and rivulets
Passage 2 taken from Birds in Town and55abound. Himachal has been converted
Village by W. H. Hudson is about exoticinto fairyland by the monsoon rains.
birds found in Britain.
A remarkable feature of the Himalayas is
Passage 1the abruptness with which they rise from
the plains in most places. In some parts
Himalayan birds inhabit what is perhaps60there are low foothills; but speaking
the most wonderful tract of country in thegenerally the mountains that rise from the
world. The Himalayas are not so much aplain attain a height of 4000 or 5000 feet.
chain of mountains as a mountainous
5country, some eighty miles broad andPassage 2
several hundred long—a country
composed entirely of mountains andThere are countries with a less fertile soil
valleys with no large plains or broadand a worse climate than ours, yet richer
plateaux.65in bird life. Nevertheless, England is not
poor; the species are not few in number,
10There is a saying of an ancient Sanskritand some are extremely abundant.
poet which, being translated into English,Unfortunately many of the finer kinds
runs: “In a hundred ages of the gods Ihave been too much sought after;
could not tell you of the glories of70persecuted first for their beauty, then for
Himachal.” This every writer on thingstheir rarity, until now we are threatened
15Himalayan contrives to drag into hiswith their total destruction. As these
composition. Some begin with thekinds become unobtainable, those which
quotation, while others reserve it for thestand next in the order of beauty and
last, and make it do duty for the epigram75rarity are persecuted in their turn; and in a
which stylists assure us should terminatecountry as densely populated as ours,
20every essay.where birds cannot hide themselves from
human eyes, such persecution must
There are some who quote the Indianeventually cause their extinction.
sage only to mock him. Such assert that80Meanwhile the bird population does not
the beauties of the Himalayas have beendecrease. Every place in nature, like
greatly exaggerated—that, as regardsevery property in Chancery, has more
25grandeur, their scenery comparesthan one claimant to it—sometimes the
unfavorably with that of the Andes, whileclaimants are many—and so long as the
their beauty is surpassed by that of the85dispute lasts all live out of the estate. For
Alps. Not having seen the Andes, I amthere are always two or more species
unable to criticize the assertion regardingsubsisting on the same kind of food,
30the grandeur of the Himalayas, but I findpossessing similar habits, and frequenting
it difficult to imagine anything finer thanthe same localities. It is consequently
their scenery.90impossible for man to exterminate any
one species without indirectly benefiting
As regards beauty, the Himalayas at theirsome other species, which attracts him in
best surpass the Alps, because theya less degree, or not at all. This is
35exhibit far more variety, and presentunfortunate, for as the bright kinds, or
everything on a grander scale.95those we esteem most, diminish in
The Himalayas are a kind of Dr. Jekyllnumbers the less interesting kinds
and Mr. Hyde. They have two faces—themultiply, and we lose much of the
fair and the plain. In May they are at theirpleasure which bird life is fitted to give
40worst. Those of the hillsides which areus. When we visit woods, or other places
not afforested are brown, arid, and100to which birds chiefly resort, in districts
desolate, and the valleys, in addition touninhabited by man, or where he pays
being unpleasantly hot, are dry and dusty.little or no attention to the feathered
The foliage of the trees lacks freshness,creatures, the variety of the bird life
45and everywhere there is a remarkableencountered affords a new and peculiar
absence of water, save in the valleys105delight. There is a constant succession of
through which the rivers flow. On thenew forms and new voices; in a single
other hand, September is the month inday as many species may be met with as
which the Himalayas attain perfection orone would find in England by searching
50something approaching it. The eye isdiligently for a whole year.
refreshed by the bright emerald garment

31. Which choice best provides evidence for the answer to the previous question?

32 / 52

The first edited passage is from Birds ofwhich the hills have newly donned. The
the Indian Hills by Douglas Dewar whichfoliage is green and luxuriant. Waterfalls,
discusses Himalayan bird habitat.cascades, mighty torrents and rivulets
Passage 2 taken from Birds in Town and55abound. Himachal has been converted
Village by W. H. Hudson is about exoticinto fairyland by the monsoon rains.
birds found in Britain.
A remarkable feature of the Himalayas is
Passage 1the abruptness with which they rise from
the plains in most places. In some parts
Himalayan birds inhabit what is perhaps60there are low foothills; but speaking
the most wonderful tract of country in thegenerally the mountains that rise from the
world. The Himalayas are not so much aplain attain a height of 4000 or 5000 feet.
chain of mountains as a mountainous
5country, some eighty miles broad andPassage 2
several hundred long—a country
composed entirely of mountains andThere are countries with a less fertile soil
valleys with no large plains or broadand a worse climate than ours, yet richer
plateaux.65in bird life. Nevertheless, England is not
poor; the species are not few in number,
10There is a saying of an ancient Sanskritand some are extremely abundant.
poet which, being translated into English,Unfortunately many of the finer kinds
runs: “In a hundred ages of the gods Ihave been too much sought after;
could not tell you of the glories of70persecuted first for their beauty, then for
Himachal.” This every writer on thingstheir rarity, until now we are threatened
15Himalayan contrives to drag into hiswith their total destruction. As these
composition. Some begin with thekinds become unobtainable, those which
quotation, while others reserve it for thestand next in the order of beauty and
last, and make it do duty for the epigram75rarity are persecuted in their turn; and in a
which stylists assure us should terminatecountry as densely populated as ours,
20every essay.where birds cannot hide themselves from
human eyes, such persecution must
There are some who quote the Indianeventually cause their extinction.
sage only to mock him. Such assert that80Meanwhile the bird population does not
the beauties of the Himalayas have beendecrease. Every place in nature, like
greatly exaggerated—that, as regardsevery property in Chancery, has more
25grandeur, their scenery comparesthan one claimant to it—sometimes the
unfavorably with that of the Andes, whileclaimants are many—and so long as the
their beauty is surpassed by that of the85dispute lasts all live out of the estate. For
Alps. Not having seen the Andes, I amthere are always two or more species
unable to criticize the assertion regardingsubsisting on the same kind of food,
30the grandeur of the Himalayas, but I findpossessing similar habits, and frequenting
it difficult to imagine anything finer thanthe same localities. It is consequently
their scenery.90impossible for man to exterminate any
one species without indirectly benefiting
As regards beauty, the Himalayas at theirsome other species, which attracts him in
best surpass the Alps, because theya less degree, or not at all. This is
35exhibit far more variety, and presentunfortunate, for as the bright kinds, or
everything on a grander scale.95those we esteem most, diminish in
The Himalayas are a kind of Dr. Jekyllnumbers the less interesting kinds
and Mr. Hyde. They have two faces—themultiply, and we lose much of the
fair and the plain. In May they are at theirpleasure which bird life is fitted to give
40worst. Those of the hillsides which areus. When we visit woods, or other places
not afforested are brown, arid, and100to which birds chiefly resort, in districts
desolate, and the valleys, in addition touninhabited by man, or where he pays
being unpleasantly hot, are dry and dusty.little or no attention to the feathered
The foliage of the trees lacks freshness,creatures, the variety of the bird life
45and everywhere there is a remarkableencountered affords a new and peculiar
absence of water, save in the valleys105delight. There is a constant succession of
through which the rivers flow. On thenew forms and new voices; in a single
other hand, September is the month inday as many species may be met with as
which the Himalayas attain perfection orone would find in England by searching
50something approaching it. The eye isdiligently for a whole year.
refreshed by the bright emerald garment

32. As used in line 98, “fitted” most nearly means

33 / 52

The following edited passage is takenNext door to the goldsmith’s shop there
from Knight of Art: Stories of Italianlived an old artist called Barile, who
Painters by Amy Steedman on Andrea Delbegan to take a great interest in little
Sarto’s upbringing before becoming a4545 Andrea. Barile was not a great painter,
famous painter.but still there was much that he could
teach the boy, and he was anxious to have
Nowhere in Florence could a more honesthim as a pupil. So it was arranged that
man or a better worker be found thanAndrea should enter the studio and learn
Agnolo the tailor. True, there were once5050 to be an artist instead of a goldsmith.
evil tales whispered about him when he
55 first opened his shop in the little street. ItFor three years the boy worked steadily
was said that he was no Italian, but awith his new master, but by that time
foreigner who had been obliged to fleeBarile saw that better teaching was
from his own land because of a quarrel heneeded than he could give. So after much
had had with one of his customers.5555 thought the old man went to the great
1010 People shook their heads and talkedFlorentine artist Piero di Cosimo, and
mysteriously of how the tailor’s scissorsasked him if he would agree to receive
had been used as a deadly weapon in theAndrea as his pupil. “You will find the
fight. But before long these stories diedboy no trouble,” he urged. “He has
away, and the tailor, with his wife6060 wonderful talent, and already he has
1515 Constanza, lived a happy, busy life, andlearned to mix his colors so marvelously
brought up their six children carefullythat to my mind there is no artist in
and well.Florence who knows more about color
than little Andrea.” Cosimo shook his
Now out of those six children five were6565 head in unbelief. The boy was but a child,
just the ordinary commonplace little onesand this praise seemed absurd. However,
2020 such as one would expect to meet in athe drawings were certainly
tailor’s household, but the sixth was likeextraordinary, and he was glad to receive
the ugly duckling in the fairy tale—aso clever a pupil.
little, strange bird, unlike all the rest, who
learned to swim far away and soon left7070 But little by little, as Cosimo watched the
2525 the old commonplace home behind him.boy at work, his unbelief vanished and
his wonder grew, until he was as fond and
The boy’s name was Andrea. He wasproud of his pupil as the old master had
such a quick, sharp little boy that he wasbeen. “He handles his colors as if he had
sent very early to school, and had learned7575 had fifty years of experience,” he would
to read and write before he was sevensay proudly, as he showed off the boy’s
3030 years old. As that was considered quitework to some new patron.
enough education, his father then took
him away from school and put him toAnd truly the knowledge of drawing and
work with a goldsmith.coloring seemed to come to the boy
8080 without any effort. Not that he was idle or
It is early days to begin work at seventrusted to chance. He was never tired of
3535 years old, but Andrea thought it was quitework, and his greatest joy on holidays
as good as play. He was always perfectlywas to go off and study the drawings of
happy if he could have a pencil andthe great Michelangelo and Leonardo da
paper, and his drawings and designs were8585 Vinci. Often he would spend the whole
really so wonderfully good that hisday copying these drawings with the
4040 master grew to be quite proud of the childgreatest care, never tired of learning more
and showed the work to all his customers. and more.

33. The author references the “ugly duckling” in line 22 as a(n)

34 / 52

The following edited passage is takenNext door to the goldsmith’s shop there
from Knight of Art: Stories of Italianlived an old artist called Barile, who
Painters by Amy Steedman on Andrea Delbegan to take a great interest in little
Sarto’s upbringing before becoming a4545 Andrea. Barile was not a great painter,
famous painter.but still there was much that he could
teach the boy, and he was anxious to have
Nowhere in Florence could a more honesthim as a pupil. So it was arranged that
man or a better worker be found thanAndrea should enter the studio and learn
Agnolo the tailor. True, there were once5050 to be an artist instead of a goldsmith.
evil tales whispered about him when he
55 first opened his shop in the little street. ItFor three years the boy worked steadily
was said that he was no Italian, but awith his new master, but by that time
foreigner who had been obliged to fleeBarile saw that better teaching was
from his own land because of a quarrel heneeded than he could give. So after much
had had with one of his customers.5555 thought the old man went to the great
1010 People shook their heads and talkedFlorentine artist Piero di Cosimo, and
mysteriously of how the tailor’s scissorsasked him if he would agree to receive
had been used as a deadly weapon in theAndrea as his pupil. “You will find the
fight. But before long these stories diedboy no trouble,” he urged. “He has
away, and the tailor, with his wife6060 wonderful talent, and already he has
1515 Constanza, lived a happy, busy life, andlearned to mix his colors so marvelously
brought up their six children carefullythat to my mind there is no artist in
and well.Florence who knows more about color
than little Andrea.” Cosimo shook his
Now out of those six children five were6565 head in unbelief. The boy was but a child,
just the ordinary commonplace little onesand this praise seemed absurd. However,
2020 such as one would expect to meet in athe drawings were certainly
tailor’s household, but the sixth was likeextraordinary, and he was glad to receive
the ugly duckling in the fairy tale—aso clever a pupil.
little, strange bird, unlike all the rest, who
learned to swim far away and soon left7070 But little by little, as Cosimo watched the
2525 the old commonplace home behind him.boy at work, his unbelief vanished and
his wonder grew, until he was as fond and
The boy’s name was Andrea. He wasproud of his pupil as the old master had
such a quick, sharp little boy that he wasbeen. “He handles his colors as if he had
sent very early to school, and had learned7575 had fifty years of experience,” he would
to read and write before he was sevensay proudly, as he showed off the boy’s
3030 years old. As that was considered quitework to some new patron.
enough education, his father then took
him away from school and put him toAnd truly the knowledge of drawing and
work with a goldsmith.coloring seemed to come to the boy
8080 without any effort. Not that he was idle or
It is early days to begin work at seventrusted to chance. He was never tired of
3535 years old, but Andrea thought it was quitework, and his greatest joy on holidays
as good as play. He was always perfectlywas to go off and study the drawings of
happy if he could have a pencil andthe great Michelangelo and Leonardo da
paper, and his drawings and designs were8585 Vinci. Often he would spend the whole
really so wonderfully good that hisday copying these drawings with the
4040 master grew to be quite proud of the childgreatest care, never tired of learning more
and showed the work to all his customers. and more.

34. Young Andrea was most content when

35 / 52

The following edited passage is takenNext door to the goldsmith’s shop there
from Knight of Art: Stories of Italianlived an old artist called Barile, who
Painters by Amy Steedman on Andrea Delbegan to take a great interest in little
Sarto’s upbringing before becoming a4545 Andrea. Barile was not a great painter,
famous painter.but still there was much that he could
teach the boy, and he was anxious to have
Nowhere in Florence could a more honesthim as a pupil. So it was arranged that
man or a better worker be found thanAndrea should enter the studio and learn
Agnolo the tailor. True, there were once5050 to be an artist instead of a goldsmith.
evil tales whispered about him when he
55 first opened his shop in the little street. ItFor three years the boy worked steadily
was said that he was no Italian, but awith his new master, but by that time
foreigner who had been obliged to fleeBarile saw that better teaching was
from his own land because of a quarrel heneeded than he could give. So after much
had had with one of his customers.5555 thought the old man went to the great
1010 People shook their heads and talkedFlorentine artist Piero di Cosimo, and
mysteriously of how the tailor’s scissorsasked him if he would agree to receive
had been used as a deadly weapon in theAndrea as his pupil. “You will find the
fight. But before long these stories diedboy no trouble,” he urged. “He has
away, and the tailor, with his wife6060 wonderful talent, and already he has
1515 Constanza, lived a happy, busy life, andlearned to mix his colors so marvelously
brought up their six children carefullythat to my mind there is no artist in
and well.Florence who knows more about color
than little Andrea.” Cosimo shook his
Now out of those six children five were6565 head in unbelief. The boy was but a child,
just the ordinary commonplace little onesand this praise seemed absurd. However,
2020 such as one would expect to meet in athe drawings were certainly
tailor’s household, but the sixth was likeextraordinary, and he was glad to receive
the ugly duckling in the fairy tale—aso clever a pupil.
little, strange bird, unlike all the rest, who
learned to swim far away and soon left7070 But little by little, as Cosimo watched the
2525 the old commonplace home behind him.boy at work, his unbelief vanished and
his wonder grew, until he was as fond and
The boy’s name was Andrea. He wasproud of his pupil as the old master had
such a quick, sharp little boy that he wasbeen. “He handles his colors as if he had
sent very early to school, and had learned7575 had fifty years of experience,” he would
to read and write before he was sevensay proudly, as he showed off the boy’s
3030 years old. As that was considered quitework to some new patron.
enough education, his father then took
him away from school and put him toAnd truly the knowledge of drawing and
work with a goldsmith.coloring seemed to come to the boy
8080 without any effort. Not that he was idle or
It is early days to begin work at seventrusted to chance. He was never tired of
3535 years old, but Andrea thought it was quitework, and his greatest joy on holidays
as good as play. He was always perfectlywas to go off and study the drawings of
happy if he could have a pencil andthe great Michelangelo and Leonardo da
paper, and his drawings and designs were8585 Vinci. Often he would spend the whole
really so wonderfully good that hisday copying these drawings with the
4040 master grew to be quite proud of the childgreatest care, never tired of learning more
and showed the work to all his customers. and more.

35. Which choice best provides evidence for the answer to the previous question?

36 / 52

The following edited passage is takenNext door to the goldsmith’s shop there
from Knight of Art: Stories of Italianlived an old artist called Barile, who
Painters by Amy Steedman on Andrea Delbegan to take a great interest in little
Sarto’s upbringing before becoming a4545 Andrea. Barile was not a great painter,
famous painter.but still there was much that he could
teach the boy, and he was anxious to have
Nowhere in Florence could a more honesthim as a pupil. So it was arranged that
man or a better worker be found thanAndrea should enter the studio and learn
Agnolo the tailor. True, there were once5050 to be an artist instead of a goldsmith.
evil tales whispered about him when he
55 first opened his shop in the little street. ItFor three years the boy worked steadily
was said that he was no Italian, but awith his new master, but by that time
foreigner who had been obliged to fleeBarile saw that better teaching was
from his own land because of a quarrel heneeded than he could give. So after much
had had with one of his customers.5555 thought the old man went to the great
1010 People shook their heads and talkedFlorentine artist Piero di Cosimo, and
mysteriously of how the tailor’s scissorsasked him if he would agree to receive
had been used as a deadly weapon in theAndrea as his pupil. “You will find the
fight. But before long these stories diedboy no trouble,” he urged. “He has
away, and the tailor, with his wife6060 wonderful talent, and already he has
1515 Constanza, lived a happy, busy life, andlearned to mix his colors so marvelously
brought up their six children carefullythat to my mind there is no artist in
and well.Florence who knows more about color
than little Andrea.” Cosimo shook his
Now out of those six children five were6565 head in unbelief. The boy was but a child,
just the ordinary commonplace little onesand this praise seemed absurd. However,
2020 such as one would expect to meet in athe drawings were certainly
tailor’s household, but the sixth was likeextraordinary, and he was glad to receive
the ugly duckling in the fairy tale—aso clever a pupil.
little, strange bird, unlike all the rest, who
learned to swim far away and soon left7070 But little by little, as Cosimo watched the
2525 the old commonplace home behind him.boy at work, his unbelief vanished and
his wonder grew, until he was as fond and
The boy’s name was Andrea. He wasproud of his pupil as the old master had
such a quick, sharp little boy that he wasbeen. “He handles his colors as if he had
sent very early to school, and had learned7575 had fifty years of experience,” he would
to read and write before he was sevensay proudly, as he showed off the boy’s
3030 years old. As that was considered quitework to some new patron.
enough education, his father then took
him away from school and put him toAnd truly the knowledge of drawing and
work with a goldsmith.coloring seemed to come to the boy
8080 without any effort. Not that he was idle or
It is early days to begin work at seventrusted to chance. He was never tired of
3535 years old, but Andrea thought it was quitework, and his greatest joy on holidays
as good as play. He was always perfectlywas to go off and study the drawings of
happy if he could have a pencil andthe great Michelangelo and Leonardo da
paper, and his drawings and designs were8585 Vinci. Often he would spend the whole
really so wonderfully good that hisday copying these drawings with the
4040 master grew to be quite proud of the childgreatest care, never tired of learning more
and showed the work to all his customers. and more.

36. As used in line 27, “sharp” most nearly means

37 / 52

The following edited passage is takenNext door to the goldsmith’s shop there
from Knight of Art: Stories of Italianlived an old artist called Barile, who
Painters by Amy Steedman on Andrea Delbegan to take a great interest in little
Sarto’s upbringing before becoming a4545 Andrea. Barile was not a great painter,
famous painter.but still there was much that he could
teach the boy, and he was anxious to have
Nowhere in Florence could a more honesthim as a pupil. So it was arranged that
man or a better worker be found thanAndrea should enter the studio and learn
Agnolo the tailor. True, there were once5050 to be an artist instead of a goldsmith.
evil tales whispered about him when he
55 first opened his shop in the little street. ItFor three years the boy worked steadily
was said that he was no Italian, but awith his new master, but by that time
foreigner who had been obliged to fleeBarile saw that better teaching was
from his own land because of a quarrel heneeded than he could give. So after much
had had with one of his customers.5555 thought the old man went to the great
1010 People shook their heads and talkedFlorentine artist Piero di Cosimo, and
mysteriously of how the tailor’s scissorsasked him if he would agree to receive
had been used as a deadly weapon in theAndrea as his pupil. “You will find the
fight. But before long these stories diedboy no trouble,” he urged. “He has
away, and the tailor, with his wife6060 wonderful talent, and already he has
1515 Constanza, lived a happy, busy life, andlearned to mix his colors so marvelously
brought up their six children carefullythat to my mind there is no artist in
and well.Florence who knows more about color
than little Andrea.” Cosimo shook his
Now out of those six children five were6565 head in unbelief. The boy was but a child,
just the ordinary commonplace little onesand this praise seemed absurd. However,
2020 such as one would expect to meet in athe drawings were certainly
tailor’s household, but the sixth was likeextraordinary, and he was glad to receive
the ugly duckling in the fairy tale—aso clever a pupil.
little, strange bird, unlike all the rest, who
learned to swim far away and soon left7070 But little by little, as Cosimo watched the
2525 the old commonplace home behind him.boy at work, his unbelief vanished and
his wonder grew, until he was as fond and
The boy’s name was Andrea. He wasproud of his pupil as the old master had
such a quick, sharp little boy that he wasbeen. “He handles his colors as if he had
sent very early to school, and had learned7575 had fifty years of experience,” he would
to read and write before he was sevensay proudly, as he showed off the boy’s
3030 years old. As that was considered quitework to some new patron.
enough education, his father then took
him away from school and put him toAnd truly the knowledge of drawing and
work with a goldsmith.coloring seemed to come to the boy
8080 without any effort. Not that he was idle or
It is early days to begin work at seventrusted to chance. He was never tired of
3535 years old, but Andrea thought it was quitework, and his greatest joy on holidays
as good as play. He was always perfectlywas to go off and study the drawings of
happy if he could have a pencil andthe great Michelangelo and Leonardo da
paper, and his drawings and designs were8585 Vinci. Often he would spend the whole
really so wonderfully good that hisday copying these drawings with the
4040 master grew to be quite proud of the childgreatest care, never tired of learning more
and showed the work to all his customers. and more.

37. According to the passage, what is the best explanation as to why young Andrea was taken out of school?

38 / 52

The following edited passage is takenNext door to the goldsmith’s shop there
from Knight of Art: Stories of Italianlived an old artist called Barile, who
Painters by Amy Steedman on Andrea Delbegan to take a great interest in little
Sarto’s upbringing before becoming a4545 Andrea. Barile was not a great painter,
famous painter.but still there was much that he could
teach the boy, and he was anxious to have
Nowhere in Florence could a more honesthim as a pupil. So it was arranged that
man or a better worker be found thanAndrea should enter the studio and learn
Agnolo the tailor. True, there were once5050 to be an artist instead of a goldsmith.
evil tales whispered about him when he
55 first opened his shop in the little street. ItFor three years the boy worked steadily
was said that he was no Italian, but awith his new master, but by that time
foreigner who had been obliged to fleeBarile saw that better teaching was
from his own land because of a quarrel heneeded than he could give. So after much
had had with one of his customers.5555 thought the old man went to the great
1010 People shook their heads and talkedFlorentine artist Piero di Cosimo, and
mysteriously of how the tailor’s scissorsasked him if he would agree to receive
had been used as a deadly weapon in theAndrea as his pupil. “You will find the
fight. But before long these stories diedboy no trouble,” he urged. “He has
away, and the tailor, with his wife6060 wonderful talent, and already he has
1515 Constanza, lived a happy, busy life, andlearned to mix his colors so marvelously
brought up their six children carefullythat to my mind there is no artist in
and well.Florence who knows more about color
than little Andrea.” Cosimo shook his
Now out of those six children five were6565 head in unbelief. The boy was but a child,
just the ordinary commonplace little onesand this praise seemed absurd. However,
2020 such as one would expect to meet in athe drawings were certainly
tailor’s household, but the sixth was likeextraordinary, and he was glad to receive
the ugly duckling in the fairy tale—aso clever a pupil.
little, strange bird, unlike all the rest, who
learned to swim far away and soon left7070 But little by little, as Cosimo watched the
2525 the old commonplace home behind him.boy at work, his unbelief vanished and
his wonder grew, until he was as fond and
The boy’s name was Andrea. He wasproud of his pupil as the old master had
such a quick, sharp little boy that he wasbeen. “He handles his colors as if he had
sent very early to school, and had learned7575 had fifty years of experience,” he would
to read and write before he was sevensay proudly, as he showed off the boy’s
3030 years old. As that was considered quitework to some new patron.
enough education, his father then took
him away from school and put him toAnd truly the knowledge of drawing and
work with a goldsmith.coloring seemed to come to the boy
8080 without any effort. Not that he was idle or
It is early days to begin work at seventrusted to chance. He was never tired of
3535 years old, but Andrea thought it was quitework, and his greatest joy on holidays
as good as play. He was always perfectlywas to go off and study the drawings of
happy if he could have a pencil andthe great Michelangelo and Leonardo da
paper, and his drawings and designs were8585 Vinci. Often he would spend the whole
really so wonderfully good that hisday copying these drawings with the
4040 master grew to be quite proud of the childgreatest care, never tired of learning more
and showed the work to all his customers. and more.

38. According to the passage, how did Cosimo initially feel about taking young Andrea as a pupil?

39 / 52

The following edited passage is takenNext door to the goldsmith’s shop there
from Knight of Art: Stories of Italianlived an old artist called Barile, who
Painters by Amy Steedman on Andrea Delbegan to take a great interest in little
Sarto’s upbringing before becoming a4545 Andrea. Barile was not a great painter,
famous painter.but still there was much that he could
teach the boy, and he was anxious to have
Nowhere in Florence could a more honesthim as a pupil. So it was arranged that
man or a better worker be found thanAndrea should enter the studio and learn
Agnolo the tailor. True, there were once5050 to be an artist instead of a goldsmith.
evil tales whispered about him when he
55 first opened his shop in the little street. ItFor three years the boy worked steadily
was said that he was no Italian, but awith his new master, but by that time
foreigner who had been obliged to fleeBarile saw that better teaching was
from his own land because of a quarrel heneeded than he could give. So after much
had had with one of his customers.5555 thought the old man went to the great
1010 People shook their heads and talkedFlorentine artist Piero di Cosimo, and
mysteriously of how the tailor’s scissorsasked him if he would agree to receive
had been used as a deadly weapon in theAndrea as his pupil. “You will find the
fight. But before long these stories diedboy no trouble,” he urged. “He has
away, and the tailor, with his wife6060 wonderful talent, and already he has
1515 Constanza, lived a happy, busy life, andlearned to mix his colors so marvelously
brought up their six children carefullythat to my mind there is no artist in
and well.Florence who knows more about color
than little Andrea.” Cosimo shook his
Now out of those six children five were6565 head in unbelief. The boy was but a child,
just the ordinary commonplace little onesand this praise seemed absurd. However,
2020 such as one would expect to meet in athe drawings were certainly
tailor’s household, but the sixth was likeextraordinary, and he was glad to receive
the ugly duckling in the fairy tale—aso clever a pupil.
little, strange bird, unlike all the rest, who
learned to swim far away and soon left7070 But little by little, as Cosimo watched the
2525 the old commonplace home behind him.boy at work, his unbelief vanished and
his wonder grew, until he was as fond and
The boy’s name was Andrea. He wasproud of his pupil as the old master had
such a quick, sharp little boy that he wasbeen. “He handles his colors as if he had
sent very early to school, and had learned7575 had fifty years of experience,” he would
to read and write before he was sevensay proudly, as he showed off the boy’s
3030 years old. As that was considered quitework to some new patron.
enough education, his father then took
him away from school and put him toAnd truly the knowledge of drawing and
work with a goldsmith.coloring seemed to come to the boy
8080 without any effort. Not that he was idle or
It is early days to begin work at seventrusted to chance. He was never tired of
3535 years old, but Andrea thought it was quitework, and his greatest joy on holidays
as good as play. He was always perfectlywas to go off and study the drawings of
happy if he could have a pencil andthe great Michelangelo and Leonardo da
paper, and his drawings and designs were8585 Vinci. Often he would spend the whole
really so wonderfully good that hisday copying these drawings with the
4040 master grew to be quite proud of the childgreatest care, never tired of learning more
and showed the work to all his customers. and more.

39. Which choice best provides evidence for the answer to the previous question?

40 / 52

The following edited passage is takenNext door to the goldsmith’s shop there
from Knight of Art: Stories of Italianlived an old artist called Barile, who
Painters by Amy Steedman on Andrea Delbegan to take a great interest in little
Sarto’s upbringing before becoming a4545 Andrea. Barile was not a great painter,
famous painter.but still there was much that he could
teach the boy, and he was anxious to have
Nowhere in Florence could a more honesthim as a pupil. So it was arranged that
man or a better worker be found thanAndrea should enter the studio and learn
Agnolo the tailor. True, there were once5050 to be an artist instead of a goldsmith.
evil tales whispered about him when he
55 first opened his shop in the little street. ItFor three years the boy worked steadily
was said that he was no Italian, but awith his new master, but by that time
foreigner who had been obliged to fleeBarile saw that better teaching was
from his own land because of a quarrel heneeded than he could give. So after much
had had with one of his customers.5555 thought the old man went to the great
1010 People shook their heads and talkedFlorentine artist Piero di Cosimo, and
mysteriously of how the tailor’s scissorsasked him if he would agree to receive
had been used as a deadly weapon in theAndrea as his pupil. “You will find the
fight. But before long these stories diedboy no trouble,” he urged. “He has
away, and the tailor, with his wife6060 wonderful talent, and already he has
1515 Constanza, lived a happy, busy life, andlearned to mix his colors so marvelously
brought up their six children carefullythat to my mind there is no artist in
and well.Florence who knows more about color
than little Andrea.” Cosimo shook his
Now out of those six children five were6565 head in unbelief. The boy was but a child,
just the ordinary commonplace little onesand this praise seemed absurd. However,
2020 such as one would expect to meet in athe drawings were certainly
tailor’s household, but the sixth was likeextraordinary, and he was glad to receive
the ugly duckling in the fairy tale—aso clever a pupil.
little, strange bird, unlike all the rest, who
learned to swim far away and soon left7070 But little by little, as Cosimo watched the
2525 the old commonplace home behind him.boy at work, his unbelief vanished and
his wonder grew, until he was as fond and
The boy’s name was Andrea. He wasproud of his pupil as the old master had
such a quick, sharp little boy that he wasbeen. “He handles his colors as if he had
sent very early to school, and had learned7575 had fifty years of experience,” he would
to read and write before he was sevensay proudly, as he showed off the boy’s
3030 years old. As that was considered quitework to some new patron.
enough education, his father then took
him away from school and put him toAnd truly the knowledge of drawing and
work with a goldsmith.coloring seemed to come to the boy
8080 without any effort. Not that he was idle or
It is early days to begin work at seventrusted to chance. He was never tired of
3535 years old, but Andrea thought it was quitework, and his greatest joy on holidays
as good as play. He was always perfectlywas to go off and study the drawings of
happy if he could have a pencil andthe great Michelangelo and Leonardo da
paper, and his drawings and designs were8585 Vinci. Often he would spend the whole
really so wonderfully good that hisday copying these drawings with the
4040 master grew to be quite proud of the childgreatest care, never tired of learning more
and showed the work to all his customers. and more.

40. According to the passage, what was special about Andrea as an up-and coming painter?

41 / 52

The following edited passage is takenNext door to the goldsmith’s shop there
from Knight of Art: Stories of Italianlived an old artist called Barile, who
Painters by Amy Steedman on Andrea Delbegan to take a great interest in little
Sarto’s upbringing before becoming a4545 Andrea. Barile was not a great painter,
famous painter.but still there was much that he could
teach the boy, and he was anxious to have
Nowhere in Florence could a more honesthim as a pupil. So it was arranged that
man or a better worker be found thanAndrea should enter the studio and learn
Agnolo the tailor. True, there were once5050 to be an artist instead of a goldsmith.
evil tales whispered about him when he
55 first opened his shop in the little street. ItFor three years the boy worked steadily
was said that he was no Italian, but awith his new master, but by that time
foreigner who had been obliged to fleeBarile saw that better teaching was
from his own land because of a quarrel heneeded than he could give. So after much
had had with one of his customers.5555 thought the old man went to the great
1010 People shook their heads and talkedFlorentine artist Piero di Cosimo, and
mysteriously of how the tailor’s scissorsasked him if he would agree to receive
had been used as a deadly weapon in theAndrea as his pupil. “You will find the
fight. But before long these stories diedboy no trouble,” he urged. “He has
away, and the tailor, with his wife6060 wonderful talent, and already he has
1515 Constanza, lived a happy, busy life, andlearned to mix his colors so marvelously
brought up their six children carefullythat to my mind there is no artist in
and well.Florence who knows more about color
than little Andrea.” Cosimo shook his
Now out of those six children five were6565 head in unbelief. The boy was but a child,
just the ordinary commonplace little onesand this praise seemed absurd. However,
2020 such as one would expect to meet in athe drawings were certainly
tailor’s household, but the sixth was likeextraordinary, and he was glad to receive
the ugly duckling in the fairy tale—aso clever a pupil.
little, strange bird, unlike all the rest, who
learned to swim far away and soon left7070 But little by little, as Cosimo watched the
2525 the old commonplace home behind him.boy at work, his unbelief vanished and
his wonder grew, until he was as fond and
The boy’s name was Andrea. He wasproud of his pupil as the old master had
such a quick, sharp little boy that he wasbeen. “He handles his colors as if he had
sent very early to school, and had learned7575 had fifty years of experience,” he would
to read and write before he was sevensay proudly, as he showed off the boy’s
3030 years old. As that was considered quitework to some new patron.
enough education, his father then took
him away from school and put him toAnd truly the knowledge of drawing and
work with a goldsmith.coloring seemed to come to the boy
8080 without any effort. Not that he was idle or
It is early days to begin work at seventrusted to chance. He was never tired of
3535 years old, but Andrea thought it was quitework, and his greatest joy on holidays
as good as play. He was always perfectlywas to go off and study the drawings of
happy if he could have a pencil andthe great Michelangelo and Leonardo da
paper, and his drawings and designs were8585 Vinci. Often he would spend the whole
really so wonderfully good that hisday copying these drawings with the
4040 master grew to be quite proud of the childgreatest care, never tired of learning more
and showed the work to all his customers. and more.

41. As used in line 80, “idle” most nearly means

42 / 52

The following edited passage is takenNext door to the goldsmith’s shop there
from Knight of Art: Stories of Italianlived an old artist called Barile, who
Painters by Amy Steedman on Andrea Delbegan to take a great interest in little
Sarto’s upbringing before becoming a4545 Andrea. Barile was not a great painter,
famous painter.but still there was much that he could
teach the boy, and he was anxious to have
Nowhere in Florence could a more honesthim as a pupil. So it was arranged that
man or a better worker be found thanAndrea should enter the studio and learn
Agnolo the tailor. True, there were once5050 to be an artist instead of a goldsmith.
evil tales whispered about him when he
55 first opened his shop in the little street. ItFor three years the boy worked steadily
was said that he was no Italian, but awith his new master, but by that time
foreigner who had been obliged to fleeBarile saw that better teaching was
from his own land because of a quarrel heneeded than he could give. So after much
had had with one of his customers.5555 thought the old man went to the great
1010 People shook their heads and talkedFlorentine artist Piero di Cosimo, and
mysteriously of how the tailor’s scissorsasked him if he would agree to receive
had been used as a deadly weapon in theAndrea as his pupil. “You will find the
fight. But before long these stories diedboy no trouble,” he urged. “He has
away, and the tailor, with his wife6060 wonderful talent, and already he has
1515 Constanza, lived a happy, busy life, andlearned to mix his colors so marvelously
brought up their six children carefullythat to my mind there is no artist in
and well.Florence who knows more about color
than little Andrea.” Cosimo shook his
Now out of those six children five were6565 head in unbelief. The boy was but a child,
just the ordinary commonplace little onesand this praise seemed absurd. However,
2020 such as one would expect to meet in athe drawings were certainly
tailor’s household, but the sixth was likeextraordinary, and he was glad to receive
the ugly duckling in the fairy tale—aso clever a pupil.
little, strange bird, unlike all the rest, who
learned to swim far away and soon left7070 But little by little, as Cosimo watched the
2525 the old commonplace home behind him.boy at work, his unbelief vanished and
his wonder grew, until he was as fond and
The boy’s name was Andrea. He wasproud of his pupil as the old master had
such a quick, sharp little boy that he wasbeen. “He handles his colors as if he had
sent very early to school, and had learned7575 had fifty years of experience,” he would
to read and write before he was sevensay proudly, as he showed off the boy’s
3030 years old. As that was considered quitework to some new patron.
enough education, his father then took
him away from school and put him toAnd truly the knowledge of drawing and
work with a goldsmith.coloring seemed to come to the boy
8080 without any effort. Not that he was idle or
It is early days to begin work at seventrusted to chance. He was never tired of
3535 years old, but Andrea thought it was quitework, and his greatest joy on holidays
as good as play. He was always perfectlywas to go off and study the drawings of
happy if he could have a pencil andthe great Michelangelo and Leonardo da
paper, and his drawings and designs were8585 Vinci. Often he would spend the whole
really so wonderfully good that hisday copying these drawings with the
4040 master grew to be quite proud of the childgreatest care, never tired of learning more
and showed the work to all his customers. and more.

42. The passage mentions all the following about Andrea EXCEPT that

43 / 52

The following edited passage is takenexcited into movement by a solution of
from Insectivorous Plants55the carbonate so strong that it would
by Charles Darwin on leaves andparalyze ordinary leaves and cause no
temperature.inflection.
In my observations on DroseraThe exposure of the leaves for a few
rotundifolia, the leaves seemed to beminutes even to a temperature of 145 °F
more quickly inflected over animal60does not always kill them; as when
substances, and to remain inflected for aafterwards left in cold water, or in a
5longer period during very warm thanstrong solution of carbonate of ammonia,
during cold weather. I wished, therefore,they generally, though not always,
to ascertain whether heat alone wouldbecome inflected; and the protoplasm
induce inflection, and what temperature65within their cells undergoes aggregation,
was the most efficient. Anotherthough the spheres thus formed are
10interesting point presented itself,extremely small, with many of the cells
namely, at what degree life waspartly filled with brownish muddy
extinguished; for Drosera offers unusualmatter. In two instances, when leaves
facilities in this respect, not in the loss70were immersed in water, at a lower
of the power of inflection, but in that oftemperature than 130 °F, which was then
15subsequent re-expansion, and moreraised to 145 °F, they became during the
especially in the failure of theearlier period of immersion inflected, but
protoplasm to become aggregated, whenon being afterwards left in cold water
the leaves after being heated are75were incapable of re-expansion.
immersed in a solution of carbonate ofExposure for a few minutes to a
20ammonia.temperature of 145 °F sometimes causes
some few of the more sensitive glands to
As the hair-like tentacles are extremelybe speckled with the porcelain-like
thin and have delicate walls, and as the80appearance; and on one occasion this
leaves were waved about for someoccurred at a temperature of 140 °F. On
minutes close to the bulb of theanother occasion, when a leaf was placed
25thermometer, it seems scarcely possiblein water at this temperature of only 140 °F,
that they should not have been raisedand left therein till the water cooled,
very nearly to the temperature which the85every gland became like porcelain.
instrument indicated. From the elevenExposure for a few minutes to a
last observations we see that atemperature of 150 °F generally produces
30temperature of 130 to 30 °F never causes thethis effect, yet many glands retain a
immediate inflection of the tentacles,pinkish color, and many present a
though a temperature from 120 °F to 125 °Fspeckled appearance. This high
quickly produces this effect. But the90temperature never causes true inflection;
leaves are paralyzed only for a time by aon the contrary, the tentacles commonly
35temperature of 130 o 35 °F, as afterwards,become reflexed, though to a less degree
whether left in simple water or in athan when immersed in boiling water;
solution of carbonate of ammonia, they95and this apparently is due to their passive
become inflected and their protoplasmpower of elasticity. After exposure to a
undergoes aggregation. This greattemperature of 150 °F, the protoplasm, if
40difference in the effects of a higher andsubsequently subjected to carbonate of
lower temperature may be comparedammonia, instead of undergoing
with that from immersion in strong and100aggregation, is converted into
weak solutions of the salts of ammonia;disintegrated or pulpy discolored matter.
for the former do not excite movement,In short, the leaves are generally killed
5
whereas the latter act energetically. Aby this degree of heat; but owing to
temporary suspension of the power ofdifferences of age or constitution, they
movement due to heat is called by Sachs105vary somewhat in this respect. In one
heat-rigidity; and this in the case of theanomalous case, four out of the many
sensitive-plant (Mimosa) is induced byglands on a leaf, which had been
50its exposure for a few minutes to humidimmersed in water raised to 156 °F,
air, raised to 120 °F -122 °F. It deservesescaped being rendered porcellanous;
notice that the leaves of Drosera, after110and the protoplasm in the cells close
being immersed in water at 130 °F, arebeneath these glands underwent some
slight, though imperfect, degree of
aggregation.

43. The main idea of this passage is to

44 / 52

The following edited passage is takenexcited into movement by a solution of
from Insectivorous Plants55the carbonate so strong that it would
by Charles Darwin on leaves andparalyze ordinary leaves and cause no
temperature.inflection.
In my observations on DroseraThe exposure of the leaves for a few
rotundifolia, the leaves seemed to beminutes even to a temperature of 145 °F
more quickly inflected over animal60does not always kill them; as when
substances, and to remain inflected for aafterwards left in cold water, or in a
5longer period during very warm thanstrong solution of carbonate of ammonia,
during cold weather. I wished, therefore,they generally, though not always,
to ascertain whether heat alone wouldbecome inflected; and the protoplasm
induce inflection, and what temperature65within their cells undergoes aggregation,
was the most efficient. Anotherthough the spheres thus formed are
10interesting point presented itself,extremely small, with many of the cells
namely, at what degree life waspartly filled with brownish muddy
extinguished; for Drosera offers unusualmatter. In two instances, when leaves
facilities in this respect, not in the loss70were immersed in water, at a lower
of the power of inflection, but in that oftemperature than 130 °F, which was then
15subsequent re-expansion, and moreraised to 145 °F, they became during the
especially in the failure of theearlier period of immersion inflected, but
protoplasm to become aggregated, whenon being afterwards left in cold water
the leaves after being heated are75were incapable of re-expansion.
immersed in a solution of carbonate ofExposure for a few minutes to a
20ammonia.temperature of 145 °F sometimes causes
some few of the more sensitive glands to
As the hair-like tentacles are extremelybe speckled with the porcelain-like
thin and have delicate walls, and as the80appearance; and on one occasion this
leaves were waved about for someoccurred at a temperature of 140 °F. On
minutes close to the bulb of theanother occasion, when a leaf was placed
25thermometer, it seems scarcely possiblein water at this temperature of only 140 °F,
that they should not have been raisedand left therein till the water cooled,
very nearly to the temperature which the85every gland became like porcelain.
instrument indicated. From the elevenExposure for a few minutes to a
last observations we see that atemperature of 150 °F generally produces
30temperature of 130 to 30 °F never causes thethis effect, yet many glands retain a
immediate inflection of the tentacles,pinkish color, and many present a
though a temperature from 120 °F to 125 °Fspeckled appearance. This high
quickly produces this effect. But the90temperature never causes true inflection;
leaves are paralyzed only for a time by aon the contrary, the tentacles commonly
35temperature of 130 o 35 °F, as afterwards,become reflexed, though to a less degree
whether left in simple water or in athan when immersed in boiling water;
solution of carbonate of ammonia, they95and this apparently is due to their passive
become inflected and their protoplasmpower of elasticity. After exposure to a
undergoes aggregation. This greattemperature of 150 °F, the protoplasm, if
40difference in the effects of a higher andsubsequently subjected to carbonate of
lower temperature may be comparedammonia, instead of undergoing
with that from immersion in strong and100aggregation, is converted into
weak solutions of the salts of ammonia;disintegrated or pulpy discolored matter.
for the former do not excite movement,In short, the leaves are generally killed
5
whereas the latter act energetically. Aby this degree of heat; but owing to
temporary suspension of the power ofdifferences of age or constitution, they
movement due to heat is called by Sachs105vary somewhat in this respect. In one
heat-rigidity; and this in the case of theanomalous case, four out of the many
sensitive-plant (Mimosa) is induced byglands on a leaf, which had been
50its exposure for a few minutes to humidimmersed in water raised to 156 °F,
air, raised to 120 °F -122 °F. It deservesescaped being rendered porcellanous;
notice that the leaves of Drosera, after110and the protoplasm in the cells close
being immersed in water at 130 °F, arebeneath these glands underwent some
slight, though imperfect, degree of
aggregation.

44. Which choice best provides evidence for the answer to the previous question?

45 / 52

The following edited passage is takenexcited into movement by a solution of
from Insectivorous Plants55the carbonate so strong that it would
by Charles Darwin on leaves andparalyze ordinary leaves and cause no
temperature.inflection.
In my observations on DroseraThe exposure of the leaves for a few
rotundifolia, the leaves seemed to beminutes even to a temperature of 145 °F
more quickly inflected over animal60does not always kill them; as when
substances, and to remain inflected for aafterwards left in cold water, or in a
5longer period during very warm thanstrong solution of carbonate of ammonia,
during cold weather. I wished, therefore,they generally, though not always,
to ascertain whether heat alone wouldbecome inflected; and the protoplasm
induce inflection, and what temperature65within their cells undergoes aggregation,
was the most efficient. Anotherthough the spheres thus formed are
10interesting point presented itself,extremely small, with many of the cells
namely, at what degree life waspartly filled with brownish muddy
extinguished; for Drosera offers unusualmatter. In two instances, when leaves
facilities in this respect, not in the loss70were immersed in water, at a lower
of the power of inflection, but in that oftemperature than 130 °F, which was then
15subsequent re-expansion, and moreraised to 145 °F, they became during the
especially in the failure of theearlier period of immersion inflected, but
protoplasm to become aggregated, whenon being afterwards left in cold water
the leaves after being heated are75were incapable of re-expansion.
immersed in a solution of carbonate ofExposure for a few minutes to a
20ammonia.temperature of 145 °F sometimes causes
some few of the more sensitive glands to
As the hair-like tentacles are extremelybe speckled with the porcelain-like
thin and have delicate walls, and as the80appearance; and on one occasion this
leaves were waved about for someoccurred at a temperature of 140 °F. On
minutes close to the bulb of theanother occasion, when a leaf was placed
25thermometer, it seems scarcely possiblein water at this temperature of only 140 °F,
that they should not have been raisedand left therein till the water cooled,
very nearly to the temperature which the85every gland became like porcelain.
instrument indicated. From the elevenExposure for a few minutes to a
last observations we see that atemperature of 150 °F generally produces
30temperature of 130 to 30 °F never causes thethis effect, yet many glands retain a
immediate inflection of the tentacles,pinkish color, and many present a
though a temperature from 120 °F to 125 °Fspeckled appearance. This high
quickly produces this effect. But the90temperature never causes true inflection;
leaves are paralyzed only for a time by aon the contrary, the tentacles commonly
35temperature of 130 o 35 °F, as afterwards,become reflexed, though to a less degree
whether left in simple water or in athan when immersed in boiling water;
solution of carbonate of ammonia, they95and this apparently is due to their passive
become inflected and their protoplasmpower of elasticity. After exposure to a
undergoes aggregation. This greattemperature of 150 °F, the protoplasm, if
40difference in the effects of a higher andsubsequently subjected to carbonate of
lower temperature may be comparedammonia, instead of undergoing
with that from immersion in strong and100aggregation, is converted into
weak solutions of the salts of ammonia;disintegrated or pulpy discolored matter.
for the former do not excite movement,In short, the leaves are generally killed
5
whereas the latter act energetically. Aby this degree of heat; but owing to
temporary suspension of the power ofdifferences of age or constitution, they
movement due to heat is called by Sachs105vary somewhat in this respect. In one
heat-rigidity; and this in the case of theanomalous case, four out of the many
sensitive-plant (Mimosa) is induced byglands on a leaf, which had been
50its exposure for a few minutes to humidimmersed in water raised to 156 °F,
air, raised to 120 °F -122 °F. It deservesescaped being rendered porcellanous;
notice that the leaves of Drosera, after110and the protoplasm in the cells close
being immersed in water at 130 °F, arebeneath these glands underwent some
slight, though imperfect, degree of
aggregation.

45. The passage mentions all the following in the experiments
EXCEPT

46 / 52

The following edited passage is takenexcited into movement by a solution of
from Insectivorous Plants55the carbonate so strong that it would
by Charles Darwin on leaves andparalyze ordinary leaves and cause no
temperature.inflection.
In my observations on DroseraThe exposure of the leaves for a few
rotundifolia, the leaves seemed to beminutes even to a temperature of 145 °F
more quickly inflected over animal60does not always kill them; as when
substances, and to remain inflected for aafterwards left in cold water, or in a
5longer period during very warm thanstrong solution of carbonate of ammonia,
during cold weather. I wished, therefore,they generally, though not always,
to ascertain whether heat alone wouldbecome inflected; and the protoplasm
induce inflection, and what temperature65within their cells undergoes aggregation,
was the most efficient. Anotherthough the spheres thus formed are
10interesting point presented itself,extremely small, with many of the cells
namely, at what degree life waspartly filled with brownish muddy
extinguished; for Drosera offers unusualmatter. In two instances, when leaves
facilities in this respect, not in the loss70were immersed in water, at a lower
of the power of inflection, but in that oftemperature than 130 °F, which was then
15subsequent re-expansion, and moreraised to 145 °F, they became during the
especially in the failure of theearlier period of immersion inflected, but
protoplasm to become aggregated, whenon being afterwards left in cold water
the leaves after being heated are75were incapable of re-expansion.
immersed in a solution of carbonate ofExposure for a few minutes to a
20ammonia.temperature of 145 °F sometimes causes
some few of the more sensitive glands to
As the hair-like tentacles are extremelybe speckled with the porcelain-like
thin and have delicate walls, and as the80appearance; and on one occasion this
leaves were waved about for someoccurred at a temperature of 140 °F. On
minutes close to the bulb of theanother occasion, when a leaf was placed
25thermometer, it seems scarcely possiblein water at this temperature of only 140 °F,
that they should not have been raisedand left therein till the water cooled,
very nearly to the temperature which the85every gland became like porcelain.
instrument indicated. From the elevenExposure for a few minutes to a
last observations we see that atemperature of 150 °F generally produces
30temperature of 130 to 30 °F never causes thethis effect, yet many glands retain a
immediate inflection of the tentacles,pinkish color, and many present a
though a temperature from 120 °F to 125 °Fspeckled appearance. This high
quickly produces this effect. But the90temperature never causes true inflection;
leaves are paralyzed only for a time by aon the contrary, the tentacles commonly
35temperature of 130 o 35 °F, as afterwards,become reflexed, though to a less degree
whether left in simple water or in athan when immersed in boiling water;
solution of carbonate of ammonia, they95and this apparently is due to their passive
become inflected and their protoplasmpower of elasticity. After exposure to a
undergoes aggregation. This greattemperature of 150 °F, the protoplasm, if
40difference in the effects of a higher andsubsequently subjected to carbonate of
lower temperature may be comparedammonia, instead of undergoing
with that from immersion in strong and100aggregation, is converted into
weak solutions of the salts of ammonia;disintegrated or pulpy discolored matter.
for the former do not excite movement,In short, the leaves are generally killed
5
whereas the latter act energetically. Aby this degree of heat; but owing to
temporary suspension of the power ofdifferences of age or constitution, they
movement due to heat is called by Sachs105vary somewhat in this respect. In one
heat-rigidity; and this in the case of theanomalous case, four out of the many
sensitive-plant (Mimosa) is induced byglands on a leaf, which had been
50its exposure for a few minutes to humidimmersed in water raised to 156 °F,
air, raised to 120 °F -122 °F. It deservesescaped being rendered porcellanous;
notice that the leaves of Drosera, after110and the protoplasm in the cells close
being immersed in water at 130 °F, arebeneath these glands underwent some
slight, though imperfect, degree of
aggregation.

46. According to the passage, what is different about Drosera leaves?

47 / 52

The following edited passage is takenexcited into movement by a solution of
from Insectivorous Plants55the carbonate so strong that it would
by Charles Darwin on leaves andparalyze ordinary leaves and cause no
temperature.inflection.
In my observations on DroseraThe exposure of the leaves for a few
rotundifolia, the leaves seemed to beminutes even to a temperature of 145 °F
more quickly inflected over animal60does not always kill them; as when
substances, and to remain inflected for aafterwards left in cold water, or in a
5longer period during very warm thanstrong solution of carbonate of ammonia,
during cold weather. I wished, therefore,they generally, though not always,
to ascertain whether heat alone wouldbecome inflected; and the protoplasm
induce inflection, and what temperature65within their cells undergoes aggregation,
was the most efficient. Anotherthough the spheres thus formed are
10interesting point presented itself,extremely small, with many of the cells
namely, at what degree life waspartly filled with brownish muddy
extinguished; for Drosera offers unusualmatter. In two instances, when leaves
facilities in this respect, not in the loss70were immersed in water, at a lower
of the power of inflection, but in that oftemperature than 130 °F, which was then
15subsequent re-expansion, and moreraised to 145 °F, they became during the
especially in the failure of theearlier period of immersion inflected, but
protoplasm to become aggregated, whenon being afterwards left in cold water
the leaves after being heated are75were incapable of re-expansion.
immersed in a solution of carbonate ofExposure for a few minutes to a
20ammonia.temperature of 145 °F sometimes causes
some few of the more sensitive glands to
As the hair-like tentacles are extremelybe speckled with the porcelain-like
thin and have delicate walls, and as the80appearance; and on one occasion this
leaves were waved about for someoccurred at a temperature of 140 °F. On
minutes close to the bulb of theanother occasion, when a leaf was placed
25thermometer, it seems scarcely possiblein water at this temperature of only 140 °F,
that they should not have been raisedand left therein till the water cooled,
very nearly to the temperature which the85every gland became like porcelain.
instrument indicated. From the elevenExposure for a few minutes to a
last observations we see that atemperature of 150 °F generally produces
30temperature of 130 to 30 °F never causes thethis effect, yet many glands retain a
immediate inflection of the tentacles,pinkish color, and many present a
though a temperature from 120 °F to 125 °Fspeckled appearance. This high
quickly produces this effect. But the90temperature never causes true inflection;
leaves are paralyzed only for a time by aon the contrary, the tentacles commonly
35temperature of 130 o 35 °F, as afterwards,become reflexed, though to a less degree
whether left in simple water or in athan when immersed in boiling water;
solution of carbonate of ammonia, they95and this apparently is due to their passive
become inflected and their protoplasmpower of elasticity. After exposure to a
undergoes aggregation. This greattemperature of 150 °F, the protoplasm, if
40difference in the effects of a higher andsubsequently subjected to carbonate of
lower temperature may be comparedammonia, instead of undergoing
with that from immersion in strong and100aggregation, is converted into
weak solutions of the salts of ammonia;disintegrated or pulpy discolored matter.
for the former do not excite movement,In short, the leaves are generally killed
5
whereas the latter act energetically. Aby this degree of heat; but owing to
temporary suspension of the power ofdifferences of age or constitution, they
movement due to heat is called by Sachs105vary somewhat in this respect. In one
heat-rigidity; and this in the case of theanomalous case, four out of the many
sensitive-plant (Mimosa) is induced byglands on a leaf, which had been
50its exposure for a few minutes to humidimmersed in water raised to 156 °F,
air, raised to 120 °F -122 °F. It deservesescaped being rendered porcellanous;
notice that the leaves of Drosera, after110and the protoplasm in the cells close
being immersed in water at 130 °F, arebeneath these glands underwent some
slight, though imperfect, degree of
aggregation.

47. Which choice best provides evidence for the answer to the previous question?

48 / 52

The following edited passage is takenexcited into movement by a solution of
from Insectivorous Plants55the carbonate so strong that it would
by Charles Darwin on leaves andparalyze ordinary leaves and cause no
temperature.inflection.
In my observations on DroseraThe exposure of the leaves for a few
rotundifolia, the leaves seemed to beminutes even to a temperature of 145 °F
more quickly inflected over animal60does not always kill them; as when
substances, and to remain inflected for aafterwards left in cold water, or in a
5longer period during very warm thanstrong solution of carbonate of ammonia,
during cold weather. I wished, therefore,they generally, though not always,
to ascertain whether heat alone wouldbecome inflected; and the protoplasm
induce inflection, and what temperature65within their cells undergoes aggregation,
was the most efficient. Anotherthough the spheres thus formed are
10interesting point presented itself,extremely small, with many of the cells
namely, at what degree life waspartly filled with brownish muddy
extinguished; for Drosera offers unusualmatter. In two instances, when leaves
facilities in this respect, not in the loss70were immersed in water, at a lower
of the power of inflection, but in that oftemperature than 130 °F, which was then
15subsequent re-expansion, and moreraised to 145 °F, they became during the
especially in the failure of theearlier period of immersion inflected, but
protoplasm to become aggregated, whenon being afterwards left in cold water
the leaves after being heated are75were incapable of re-expansion.
immersed in a solution of carbonate ofExposure for a few minutes to a
20ammonia.temperature of 145 °F sometimes causes
some few of the more sensitive glands to
As the hair-like tentacles are extremelybe speckled with the porcelain-like
thin and have delicate walls, and as the80appearance; and on one occasion this
leaves were waved about for someoccurred at a temperature of 140 °F. On
minutes close to the bulb of theanother occasion, when a leaf was placed
25thermometer, it seems scarcely possiblein water at this temperature of only 140 °F,
that they should not have been raisedand left therein till the water cooled,
very nearly to the temperature which the85every gland became like porcelain.
instrument indicated. From the elevenExposure for a few minutes to a
last observations we see that atemperature of 150 °F generally produces
30temperature of 130 to 30 °F never causes thethis effect, yet many glands retain a
immediate inflection of the tentacles,pinkish color, and many present a
though a temperature from 120 °F to 125 °Fspeckled appearance. This high
quickly produces this effect. But the90temperature never causes true inflection;
leaves are paralyzed only for a time by aon the contrary, the tentacles commonly
35temperature of 130 o 35 °F, as afterwards,become reflexed, though to a less degree
whether left in simple water or in athan when immersed in boiling water;
solution of carbonate of ammonia, they95and this apparently is due to their passive
become inflected and their protoplasmpower of elasticity. After exposure to a
undergoes aggregation. This greattemperature of 150 °F, the protoplasm, if
40difference in the effects of a higher andsubsequently subjected to carbonate of
lower temperature may be comparedammonia, instead of undergoing
with that from immersion in strong and100aggregation, is converted into
weak solutions of the salts of ammonia;disintegrated or pulpy discolored matter.
for the former do not excite movement,In short, the leaves are generally killed
5
whereas the latter act energetically. Aby this degree of heat; but owing to
temporary suspension of the power ofdifferences of age or constitution, they
movement due to heat is called by Sachs105vary somewhat in this respect. In one
heat-rigidity; and this in the case of theanomalous case, four out of the many
sensitive-plant (Mimosa) is induced byglands on a leaf, which had been
50its exposure for a few minutes to humidimmersed in water raised to 156 °F,
air, raised to 120 °F -122 °F. It deservesescaped being rendered porcellanous;
notice that the leaves of Drosera, after110and the protoplasm in the cells close
being immersed in water at 130 °F, arebeneath these glands underwent some
slight, though imperfect, degree of
aggregation.

48. As used in line 46, “suspension” most nearly means

49 / 52

The following edited passage is takenexcited into movement by a solution of
from Insectivorous Plants55the carbonate so strong that it would
by Charles Darwin on leaves andparalyze ordinary leaves and cause no
temperature.inflection.
In my observations on DroseraThe exposure of the leaves for a few
rotundifolia, the leaves seemed to beminutes even to a temperature of 145 °F
more quickly inflected over animal60does not always kill them; as when
substances, and to remain inflected for aafterwards left in cold water, or in a
5longer period during very warm thanstrong solution of carbonate of ammonia,
during cold weather. I wished, therefore,they generally, though not always,
to ascertain whether heat alone wouldbecome inflected; and the protoplasm
induce inflection, and what temperature65within their cells undergoes aggregation,
was the most efficient. Anotherthough the spheres thus formed are
10interesting point presented itself,extremely small, with many of the cells
namely, at what degree life waspartly filled with brownish muddy
extinguished; for Drosera offers unusualmatter. In two instances, when leaves
facilities in this respect, not in the loss70were immersed in water, at a lower
of the power of inflection, but in that oftemperature than 130 °F, which was then
15subsequent re-expansion, and moreraised to 145 °F, they became during the
especially in the failure of theearlier period of immersion inflected, but
protoplasm to become aggregated, whenon being afterwards left in cold water
the leaves after being heated are75were incapable of re-expansion.
immersed in a solution of carbonate ofExposure for a few minutes to a
20ammonia.temperature of 145 °F sometimes causes
some few of the more sensitive glands to
As the hair-like tentacles are extremelybe speckled with the porcelain-like
thin and have delicate walls, and as the80appearance; and on one occasion this
leaves were waved about for someoccurred at a temperature of 140 °F. On
minutes close to the bulb of theanother occasion, when a leaf was placed
25thermometer, it seems scarcely possiblein water at this temperature of only 140 °F,
that they should not have been raisedand left therein till the water cooled,
very nearly to the temperature which the85every gland became like porcelain.
instrument indicated. From the elevenExposure for a few minutes to a
last observations we see that atemperature of 150 °F generally produces
30temperature of 130 to 30 °F never causes thethis effect, yet many glands retain a
immediate inflection of the tentacles,pinkish color, and many present a
though a temperature from 120 °F to 125 °Fspeckled appearance. This high
quickly produces this effect. But the90temperature never causes true inflection;
leaves are paralyzed only for a time by aon the contrary, the tentacles commonly
35temperature of 130 o 35 °F, as afterwards,become reflexed, though to a less degree
whether left in simple water or in athan when immersed in boiling water;
solution of carbonate of ammonia, they95and this apparently is due to their passive
become inflected and their protoplasmpower of elasticity. After exposure to a
undergoes aggregation. This greattemperature of 150 °F, the protoplasm, if
40difference in the effects of a higher andsubsequently subjected to carbonate of
lower temperature may be comparedammonia, instead of undergoing
with that from immersion in strong and100aggregation, is converted into
weak solutions of the salts of ammonia;disintegrated or pulpy discolored matter.
for the former do not excite movement,In short, the leaves are generally killed
5
whereas the latter act energetically. Aby this degree of heat; but owing to
temporary suspension of the power ofdifferences of age or constitution, they
movement due to heat is called by Sachs105vary somewhat in this respect. In one
heat-rigidity; and this in the case of theanomalous case, four out of the many
sensitive-plant (Mimosa) is induced byglands on a leaf, which had been
50its exposure for a few minutes to humidimmersed in water raised to 156 °F,
air, raised to 120 °F -122 °F. It deservesescaped being rendered porcellanous;
notice that the leaves of Drosera, after110and the protoplasm in the cells close
being immersed in water at 130 °F, arebeneath these glands underwent some
slight, though imperfect, degree of
aggregation.

49. Which of the following best summarizes the relationship of the first paragraph to the rest of the passage?

50 / 52

The following edited passage is takenexcited into movement by a solution of
from Insectivorous Plants55the carbonate so strong that it would
by Charles Darwin on leaves andparalyze ordinary leaves and cause no
temperature.inflection.
In my observations on DroseraThe exposure of the leaves for a few
rotundifolia, the leaves seemed to beminutes even to a temperature of 145 °F
more quickly inflected over animal60does not always kill them; as when
substances, and to remain inflected for aafterwards left in cold water, or in a
5longer period during very warm thanstrong solution of carbonate of ammonia,
during cold weather. I wished, therefore,they generally, though not always,
to ascertain whether heat alone wouldbecome inflected; and the protoplasm
induce inflection, and what temperature65within their cells undergoes aggregation,
was the most efficient. Anotherthough the spheres thus formed are
10interesting point presented itself,extremely small, with many of the cells
namely, at what degree life waspartly filled with brownish muddy
extinguished; for Drosera offers unusualmatter. In two instances, when leaves
facilities in this respect, not in the loss70were immersed in water, at a lower
of the power of inflection, but in that oftemperature than 130 °F, which was then
15subsequent re-expansion, and moreraised to 145 °F, they became during the
especially in the failure of theearlier period of immersion inflected, but
protoplasm to become aggregated, whenon being afterwards left in cold water
the leaves after being heated are75were incapable of re-expansion.
immersed in a solution of carbonate ofExposure for a few minutes to a
20ammonia.temperature of 145 °F sometimes causes
some few of the more sensitive glands to
As the hair-like tentacles are extremelybe speckled with the porcelain-like
thin and have delicate walls, and as the80appearance; and on one occasion this
leaves were waved about for someoccurred at a temperature of 140 °F. On
minutes close to the bulb of theanother occasion, when a leaf was placed
25thermometer, it seems scarcely possiblein water at this temperature of only 140 °F,
that they should not have been raisedand left therein till the water cooled,
very nearly to the temperature which the85every gland became like porcelain.
instrument indicated. From the elevenExposure for a few minutes to a
last observations we see that atemperature of 150 °F generally produces
30temperature of 130 to 30 °F never causes thethis effect, yet many glands retain a
immediate inflection of the tentacles,pinkish color, and many present a
though a temperature from 120 °F to 125 °Fspeckled appearance. This high
quickly produces this effect. But the90temperature never causes true inflection;
leaves are paralyzed only for a time by aon the contrary, the tentacles commonly
35temperature of 130 o 35 °F, as afterwards,become reflexed, though to a less degree
whether left in simple water or in athan when immersed in boiling water;
solution of carbonate of ammonia, they95and this apparently is due to their passive
become inflected and their protoplasmpower of elasticity. After exposure to a
undergoes aggregation. This greattemperature of 150 °F, the protoplasm, if
40difference in the effects of a higher andsubsequently subjected to carbonate of
lower temperature may be comparedammonia, instead of undergoing
with that from immersion in strong and100aggregation, is converted into
weak solutions of the salts of ammonia;disintegrated or pulpy discolored matter.
for the former do not excite movement,In short, the leaves are generally killed
5
whereas the latter act energetically. Aby this degree of heat; but owing to
temporary suspension of the power ofdifferences of age or constitution, they
movement due to heat is called by Sachs105vary somewhat in this respect. In one
heat-rigidity; and this in the case of theanomalous case, four out of the many
sensitive-plant (Mimosa) is induced byglands on a leaf, which had been
50its exposure for a few minutes to humidimmersed in water raised to 156 °F,
air, raised to 120 °F -122 °F. It deservesescaped being rendered porcellanous;
notice that the leaves of Drosera, after110and the protoplasm in the cells close
being immersed in water at 130 °F, arebeneath these glands underwent some
slight, though imperfect, degree of
aggregation.

50. The overall tone of the passage is best described as

51 / 52

The following edited passage is takenexcited into movement by a solution of
from Insectivorous Plants55the carbonate so strong that it would
by Charles Darwin on leaves andparalyze ordinary leaves and cause no
temperature.inflection.
In my observations on DroseraThe exposure of the leaves for a few
rotundifolia, the leaves seemed to beminutes even to a temperature of 145 °F
more quickly inflected over animal60does not always kill them; as when
substances, and to remain inflected for aafterwards left in cold water, or in a
5longer period during very warm thanstrong solution of carbonate of ammonia,
during cold weather. I wished, therefore,they generally, though not always,
to ascertain whether heat alone wouldbecome inflected; and the protoplasm
induce inflection, and what temperature65within their cells undergoes aggregation,
was the most efficient. Anotherthough the spheres thus formed are
10interesting point presented itself,extremely small, with many of the cells
namely, at what degree life waspartly filled with brownish muddy
extinguished; for Drosera offers unusualmatter. In two instances, when leaves
facilities in this respect, not in the loss70were immersed in water, at a lower
of the power of inflection, but in that oftemperature than 130 °F, which was then
15subsequent re-expansion, and moreraised to 145 °F, they became during the
especially in the failure of theearlier period of immersion inflected, but
protoplasm to become aggregated, whenon being afterwards left in cold water
the leaves after being heated are75were incapable of re-expansion.
immersed in a solution of carbonate ofExposure for a few minutes to a
20ammonia.temperature of 145 °F sometimes causes
some few of the more sensitive glands to
As the hair-like tentacles are extremelybe speckled with the porcelain-like
thin and have delicate walls, and as the80appearance; and on one occasion this
leaves were waved about for someoccurred at a temperature of 140 °F. On
minutes close to the bulb of theanother occasion, when a leaf was placed
25thermometer, it seems scarcely possiblein water at this temperature of only 140 °F,
that they should not have been raisedand left therein till the water cooled,
very nearly to the temperature which the85every gland became like porcelain.
instrument indicated. From the elevenExposure for a few minutes to a
last observations we see that atemperature of 150 °F generally produces
30temperature of 130 to 30 °F never causes thethis effect, yet many glands retain a
immediate inflection of the tentacles,pinkish color, and many present a
though a temperature from 120 °F to 125 °Fspeckled appearance. This high
quickly produces this effect. But the90temperature never causes true inflection;
leaves are paralyzed only for a time by aon the contrary, the tentacles commonly
35temperature of 130 o 35 °F, as afterwards,become reflexed, though to a less degree
whether left in simple water or in athan when immersed in boiling water;
solution of carbonate of ammonia, they95and this apparently is due to their passive
become inflected and their protoplasmpower of elasticity. After exposure to a
undergoes aggregation. This greattemperature of 150 °F, the protoplasm, if
40difference in the effects of a higher andsubsequently subjected to carbonate of
lower temperature may be comparedammonia, instead of undergoing
with that from immersion in strong and100aggregation, is converted into
weak solutions of the salts of ammonia;disintegrated or pulpy discolored matter.
for the former do not excite movement,In short, the leaves are generally killed
5
whereas the latter act energetically. Aby this degree of heat; but owing to
temporary suspension of the power ofdifferences of age or constitution, they
movement due to heat is called by Sachs105vary somewhat in this respect. In one
heat-rigidity; and this in the case of theanomalous case, four out of the many
sensitive-plant (Mimosa) is induced byglands on a leaf, which had been
50its exposure for a few minutes to humidimmersed in water raised to 156 °F,
air, raised to 120 °F -122 °F. It deservesescaped being rendered porcellanous;
notice that the leaves of Drosera, after110and the protoplasm in the cells close
being immersed in water at 130 °F, arebeneath these glands underwent some
slight, though imperfect, degree of
aggregation.

51. Comparing both graphs, which category remains relatively high as time passes?

52 / 52

The following edited passage is takenexcited into movement by a solution of
from Insectivorous Plants55the carbonate so strong that it would
by Charles Darwin on leaves andparalyze ordinary leaves and cause no
temperature.inflection.
In my observations on DroseraThe exposure of the leaves for a few
rotundifolia, the leaves seemed to beminutes even to a temperature of 145 °F
more quickly inflected over animal60does not always kill them; as when
substances, and to remain inflected for aafterwards left in cold water, or in a
5longer period during very warm thanstrong solution of carbonate of ammonia,
during cold weather. I wished, therefore,they generally, though not always,
to ascertain whether heat alone wouldbecome inflected; and the protoplasm
induce inflection, and what temperature65within their cells undergoes aggregation,
was the most efficient. Anotherthough the spheres thus formed are
10interesting point presented itself,extremely small, with many of the cells
namely, at what degree life waspartly filled with brownish muddy
extinguished; for Drosera offers unusualmatter. In two instances, when leaves
facilities in this respect, not in the loss70were immersed in water, at a lower
of the power of inflection, but in that oftemperature than 130 °F, which was then
15subsequent re-expansion, and moreraised to 145 °F, they became during the
especially in the failure of theearlier period of immersion inflected, but
protoplasm to become aggregated, whenon being afterwards left in cold water
the leaves after being heated are75were incapable of re-expansion.
immersed in a solution of carbonate ofExposure for a few minutes to a
20ammonia.temperature of 145 °F sometimes causes
some few of the more sensitive glands to
As the hair-like tentacles are extremelybe speckled with the porcelain-like
thin and have delicate walls, and as the80appearance; and on one occasion this
leaves were waved about for someoccurred at a temperature of 140 °F. On
minutes close to the bulb of theanother occasion, when a leaf was placed
25thermometer, it seems scarcely possiblein water at this temperature of only 140 °F,
that they should not have been raisedand left therein till the water cooled,
very nearly to the temperature which the85every gland became like porcelain.
instrument indicated. From the elevenExposure for a few minutes to a
last observations we see that atemperature of 150 °F generally produces
30temperature of 130 to 30 °F never causes thethis effect, yet many glands retain a
immediate inflection of the tentacles,pinkish color, and many present a
though a temperature from 120 °F to 125 °Fspeckled appearance. This high
quickly produces this effect. But the90temperature never causes true inflection;
leaves are paralyzed only for a time by aon the contrary, the tentacles commonly
35temperature of 130 o 35 °F, as afterwards,become reflexed, though to a less degree
whether left in simple water or in athan when immersed in boiling water;
solution of carbonate of ammonia, they95and this apparently is due to their passive
become inflected and their protoplasmpower of elasticity. After exposure to a
undergoes aggregation. This greattemperature of 150 °F, the protoplasm, if
40difference in the effects of a higher andsubsequently subjected to carbonate of
lower temperature may be comparedammonia, instead of undergoing
with that from immersion in strong and100aggregation, is converted into
weak solutions of the salts of ammonia;disintegrated or pulpy discolored matter.
for the former do not excite movement,In short, the leaves are generally killed
5
whereas the latter act energetically. Aby this degree of heat; but owing to
temporary suspension of the power ofdifferences of age or constitution, they
movement due to heat is called by Sachs105vary somewhat in this respect. In one
heat-rigidity; and this in the case of theanomalous case, four out of the many
sensitive-plant (Mimosa) is induced byglands on a leaf, which had been
50its exposure for a few minutes to humidimmersed in water raised to 156 °F,
air, raised to 120 °F -122 °F. It deservesescaped being rendered porcellanous;
notice that the leaves of Drosera, after110and the protoplasm in the cells close
being immersed in water at 130 °F, arebeneath these glands underwent some
slight, though imperfect, degree of
aggregation.

52. As used in line 101, “matter” most nearly means

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