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Mock 1 (Writing)

Duration: 35 minutes

44 Multiple Choice Questions

Instructions:
– Place your answer on the answer sheet. Mark only one answer for each of the
multiple choice questions.
– Avoid guessing. Your answers should reflect your overall understanding of the
subject matter.

1 / 44

1. Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
How Pandemics Change Society
The black death, the Spanish flu, and other disease
outbreaks have transformed how people live. Will COVID-
19 change the world? It will do so, if it is similar to the
pandemics of the past. Plagues and viral contagions have
regularly [1] improved the course of human civilization.
“Things are never the same after a pandemic as they were
before, said Dr. Liam Fox, [2] who’s studied these
outbreaks for a forthcoming book. The current outbreak
will be no exception.”
The earliest pandemic [3] has occurred during the
Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. Now believed to have been
a form of typhoid fever, that particular plague passed
through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt before striking the city
of Athens. (i)The cause of plague is [4] Yersinia pestis: a bacterium
spread by fleas on rodents and it is the same culprit behind
one of the worst pandemics in human history: the Black
Death. [5] (ii) Routine medical inspections became
customary, and hospitals were built throughout Europe to
treat the sick. (iii)The Black Death eventually swept
throughout Europe and wiped out about 200 million people.
(iv) As a result, it forced authorities to institute health
measures that remain in place today. (v) Fourteenth-century
Venice ordered mandated isolation periods, named quaranta
giorni — or quarantine in English — to signify the 40
days of isolation imposed on incoming ships.
The Black Death’s biggest socioeconomic legacy was its
role in ending feudalism. Feudalism was a medieval system
that empowered wealthy nobles to grant the use of their land
to peasants in exchange for [6] there labor. By wiping out a
huge swath of the working population, the Black Death
created a labor shortage that gave peasants the [7] leverage
to negotiate new working terms effectively bringing about
the end of serfdom and paving the way for modern
capitalism. The coronavirus has already had a huge and potentially
[8] enduring impact on everyday life. Our work and social
lives have gone virtual; [9] movie studios, gyms, musicians,
and karaoke bars are streaming their content straight into
our homes. The outbreak has also revived impassioned
debates about the U.S. health-care system, possibly offering
[10] a hindrance to those in favor of universal coverage.
The Spanish Flu and the economic depression that
followed led to a wave of nationalism, authoritarianism, and
another world war. [11] Therefore, with the onset of
COVID-19, countries should be united against a common
viral enemy. We’ve forgotten a lot of the lessons that we
learned after the Spanish Flu and other pandemics, Spinney
says. We may be about to learn them again.

2 / 44

2. Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
How Pandemics Change Society
The black death, the Spanish flu, and other disease
outbreaks have transformed how people live. Will COVID-
19 change the world? It will do so, if it is similar to the
pandemics of the past. Plagues and viral contagions have
regularly [1] improved the course of human civilization.
“Things are never the same after a pandemic as they were
before, said Dr. Liam Fox, [2] who’s studied these
outbreaks for a forthcoming book. The current outbreak
will be no exception.”
The earliest pandemic [3] has occurred during the
Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. Now believed to have been
a form of typhoid fever, that particular plague passed
through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt before striking the city
of Athens. (i)The cause of plague is [4] Yersinia pestis: a bacterium
spread by fleas on rodents and it is the same culprit behind
one of the worst pandemics in human history: the Black
Death. [5] (ii) Routine medical inspections became
customary, and hospitals were built throughout Europe to
treat the sick. (iii)The Black Death eventually swept
throughout Europe and wiped out about 200 million people.
(iv) As a result, it forced authorities to institute health
measures that remain in place today. (v) Fourteenth-century
Venice ordered mandated isolation periods, named quaranta
giorni — or quarantine in English — to signify the 40
days of isolation imposed on incoming ships.
The Black Death’s biggest socioeconomic legacy was its
role in ending feudalism. Feudalism was a medieval system
that empowered wealthy nobles to grant the use of their land
to peasants in exchange for [6] there labor. By wiping out a
huge swath of the working population, the Black Death
created a labor shortage that gave peasants the [7] leverage
to negotiate new working terms effectively bringing about
the end of serfdom and paving the way for modern
capitalism. The coronavirus has already had a huge and potentially
[8] enduring impact on everyday life. Our work and social
lives have gone virtual; [9] movie studios, gyms, musicians,
and karaoke bars are streaming their content straight into
our homes. The outbreak has also revived impassioned
debates about the U.S. health-care system, possibly offering
[10] a hindrance to those in favor of universal coverage.
The Spanish Flu and the economic depression that
followed led to a wave of nationalism, authoritarianism, and
another world war. [11] Therefore, with the onset of
COVID-19, countries should be united against a common
viral enemy. We’ve forgotten a lot of the lessons that we
learned after the Spanish Flu and other pandemics, Spinney
says. We may be about to learn them again.

3 / 44

3. Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
How Pandemics Change Society
The black death, the Spanish flu, and other disease
outbreaks have transformed how people live. Will COVID-
19 change the world? It will do so, if it is similar to the
pandemics of the past. Plagues and viral contagions have
regularly [1] improved the course of human civilization.
“Things are never the same after a pandemic as they were
before, said Dr. Liam Fox, [2] who’s studied these
outbreaks for a forthcoming book. The current outbreak
will be no exception.”
The earliest pandemic [3] has occurred during the
Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. Now believed to have been
a form of typhoid fever, that particular plague passed
through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt before striking the city
of Athens. (i)The cause of plague is [4] Yersinia pestis: a bacterium
spread by fleas on rodents and it is the same culprit behind
one of the worst pandemics in human history: the Black
Death. [5] (ii) Routine medical inspections became
customary, and hospitals were built throughout Europe to
treat the sick. (iii)The Black Death eventually swept
throughout Europe and wiped out about 200 million people.
(iv) As a result, it forced authorities to institute health
measures that remain in place today. (v) Fourteenth-century
Venice ordered mandated isolation periods, named quaranta
giorni — or quarantine in English — to signify the 40
days of isolation imposed on incoming ships.
The Black Death’s biggest socioeconomic legacy was its
role in ending feudalism. Feudalism was a medieval system
that empowered wealthy nobles to grant the use of their land
to peasants in exchange for [6] there labor. By wiping out a
huge swath of the working population, the Black Death
created a labor shortage that gave peasants the [7] leverage
to negotiate new working terms effectively bringing about
the end of serfdom and paving the way for modern
capitalism. The coronavirus has already had a huge and potentially
[8] enduring impact on everyday life. Our work and social
lives have gone virtual; [9] movie studios, gyms, musicians,
and karaoke bars are streaming their content straight into
our homes. The outbreak has also revived impassioned
debates about the U.S. health-care system, possibly offering
[10] a hindrance to those in favor of universal coverage.
The Spanish Flu and the economic depression that
followed led to a wave of nationalism, authoritarianism, and
another world war. [11] Therefore, with the onset of
COVID-19, countries should be united against a common
viral enemy. We’ve forgotten a lot of the lessons that we
learned after the Spanish Flu and other pandemics, Spinney
says. We may be about to learn them again.

4 / 44

4. Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
How Pandemics Change Society
The black death, the Spanish flu, and other disease
outbreaks have transformed how people live. Will COVID-
19 change the world? It will do so, if it is similar to the
pandemics of the past. Plagues and viral contagions have
regularly [1] improved the course of human civilization.
“Things are never the same after a pandemic as they were
before, said Dr. Liam Fox, [2] who’s studied these
outbreaks for a forthcoming book. The current outbreak
will be no exception.”
The earliest pandemic [3] has occurred during the
Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. Now believed to have been
a form of typhoid fever, that particular plague passed
through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt before striking the city
of Athens. (i)The cause of plague is [4] Yersinia pestis: a bacterium
spread by fleas on rodents and it is the same culprit behind
one of the worst pandemics in human history: the Black
Death. [5] (ii) Routine medical inspections became
customary, and hospitals were built throughout Europe to
treat the sick. (iii)The Black Death eventually swept
throughout Europe and wiped out about 200 million people.
(iv) As a result, it forced authorities to institute health
measures that remain in place today. (v) Fourteenth-century
Venice ordered mandated isolation periods, named quaranta
giorni — or quarantine in English — to signify the 40
days of isolation imposed on incoming ships.
The Black Death’s biggest socioeconomic legacy was its
role in ending feudalism. Feudalism was a medieval system
that empowered wealthy nobles to grant the use of their land
to peasants in exchange for [6] there labor. By wiping out a
huge swath of the working population, the Black Death
created a labor shortage that gave peasants the [7] leverage
to negotiate new working terms effectively bringing about
the end of serfdom and paving the way for modern
capitalism. The coronavirus has already had a huge and potentially
[8] enduring impact on everyday life. Our work and social
lives have gone virtual; [9] movie studios, gyms, musicians,
and karaoke bars are streaming their content straight into
our homes. The outbreak has also revived impassioned
debates about the U.S. health-care system, possibly offering
[10] a hindrance to those in favor of universal coverage.
The Spanish Flu and the economic depression that
followed led to a wave of nationalism, authoritarianism, and
another world war. [11] Therefore, with the onset of
COVID-19, countries should be united against a common
viral enemy. We’ve forgotten a lot of the lessons that we
learned after the Spanish Flu and other pandemics, Spinney
says. We may be about to learn them again.

5 / 44

5. Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
How Pandemics Change Society
The black death, the Spanish flu, and other disease
outbreaks have transformed how people live. Will COVID-
19 change the world? It will do so, if it is similar to the
pandemics of the past. Plagues and viral contagions have
regularly [1] improved the course of human civilization.
“Things are never the same after a pandemic as they were
before, said Dr. Liam Fox, [2] who’s studied these
outbreaks for a forthcoming book. The current outbreak
will be no exception.”
The earliest pandemic [3] has occurred during the
Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. Now believed to have been
a form of typhoid fever, that particular plague passed
through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt before striking the city
of Athens. (i)The cause of plague is [4] Yersinia pestis: a bacterium
spread by fleas on rodents and it is the same culprit behind
one of the worst pandemics in human history: the Black
Death. [5] (ii) Routine medical inspections became
customary, and hospitals were built throughout Europe to
treat the sick. (iii)The Black Death eventually swept
throughout Europe and wiped out about 200 million people.
(iv) As a result, it forced authorities to institute health
measures that remain in place today. (v) Fourteenth-century
Venice ordered mandated isolation periods, named quaranta
giorni — or quarantine in English — to signify the 40
days of isolation imposed on incoming ships.
The Black Death’s biggest socioeconomic legacy was its
role in ending feudalism. Feudalism was a medieval system
that empowered wealthy nobles to grant the use of their land
to peasants in exchange for [6] there labor. By wiping out a
huge swath of the working population, the Black Death
created a labor shortage that gave peasants the [7] leverage
to negotiate new working terms effectively bringing about
the end of serfdom and paving the way for modern
capitalism. The coronavirus has already had a huge and potentially
[8] enduring impact on everyday life. Our work and social
lives have gone virtual; [9] movie studios, gyms, musicians,
and karaoke bars are streaming their content straight into
our homes. The outbreak has also revived impassioned
debates about the U.S. health-care system, possibly offering
[10] a hindrance to those in favor of universal coverage.
The Spanish Flu and the economic depression that
followed led to a wave of nationalism, authoritarianism, and
another world war. [11] Therefore, with the onset of
COVID-19, countries should be united against a common
viral enemy. We’ve forgotten a lot of the lessons that we
learned after the Spanish Flu and other pandemics, Spinney
says. We may be about to learn them again.

5. To make this paragraph most logical, sentence (ii) should be placed

6 / 44

6. Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
How Pandemics Change Society
The black death, the Spanish flu, and other disease
outbreaks have transformed how people live. Will COVID-
19 change the world? It will do so, if it is similar to the
pandemics of the past. Plagues and viral contagions have
regularly [1] improved the course of human civilization.
“Things are never the same after a pandemic as they were
before, said Dr. Liam Fox, [2] who’s studied these
outbreaks for a forthcoming book. The current outbreak
will be no exception.”
The earliest pandemic [3] has occurred during the
Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. Now believed to have been
a form of typhoid fever, that particular plague passed
through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt before striking the city
of Athens. (i)The cause of plague is [4] Yersinia pestis: a bacterium
spread by fleas on rodents and it is the same culprit behind
one of the worst pandemics in human history: the Black
Death. [5] (ii) Routine medical inspections became
customary, and hospitals were built throughout Europe to
treat the sick. (iii)The Black Death eventually swept
throughout Europe and wiped out about 200 million people.
(iv) As a result, it forced authorities to institute health
measures that remain in place today. (v) Fourteenth-century
Venice ordered mandated isolation periods, named quaranta
giorni — or quarantine in English — to signify the 40
days of isolation imposed on incoming ships.
The Black Death’s biggest socioeconomic legacy was its
role in ending feudalism. Feudalism was a medieval system
that empowered wealthy nobles to grant the use of their land
to peasants in exchange for [6] there labor. By wiping out a
huge swath of the working population, the Black Death
created a labor shortage that gave peasants the [7] leverage
to negotiate new working terms effectively bringing about
the end of serfdom and paving the way for modern
capitalism. The coronavirus has already had a huge and potentially
[8] enduring impact on everyday life. Our work and social
lives have gone virtual; [9] movie studios, gyms, musicians,
and karaoke bars are streaming their content straight into
our homes. The outbreak has also revived impassioned
debates about the U.S. health-care system, possibly offering
[10] a hindrance to those in favor of universal coverage.
The Spanish Flu and the economic depression that
followed led to a wave of nationalism, authoritarianism, and
another world war. [11] Therefore, with the onset of
COVID-19, countries should be united against a common
viral enemy. We’ve forgotten a lot of the lessons that we
learned after the Spanish Flu and other pandemics, Spinney
says. We may be about to learn them again.

7 / 44

7. Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
How Pandemics Change Society
The black death, the Spanish flu, and other disease
outbreaks have transformed how people live. Will COVID-
19 change the world? It will do so, if it is similar to the
pandemics of the past. Plagues and viral contagions have
regularly [1] improved the course of human civilization.
“Things are never the same after a pandemic as they were
before, said Dr. Liam Fox, [2] who’s studied these
outbreaks for a forthcoming book. The current outbreak
will be no exception.”
The earliest pandemic [3] has occurred during the
Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. Now believed to have been
a form of typhoid fever, that particular plague passed
through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt before striking the city
of Athens. (i)The cause of plague is [4] Yersinia pestis: a bacterium
spread by fleas on rodents and it is the same culprit behind
one of the worst pandemics in human history: the Black
Death. [5] (ii) Routine medical inspections became
customary, and hospitals were built throughout Europe to
treat the sick. (iii)The Black Death eventually swept
throughout Europe and wiped out about 200 million people.
(iv) As a result, it forced authorities to institute health
measures that remain in place today. (v) Fourteenth-century
Venice ordered mandated isolation periods, named quaranta
giorni — or quarantine in English — to signify the 40
days of isolation imposed on incoming ships.
The Black Death’s biggest socioeconomic legacy was its
role in ending feudalism. Feudalism was a medieval system
that empowered wealthy nobles to grant the use of their land
to peasants in exchange for [6] there labor. By wiping out a
huge swath of the working population, the Black Death
created a labor shortage that gave peasants the [7] leverage
to negotiate new working terms effectively bringing about
the end of serfdom and paving the way for modern
capitalism. The coronavirus has already had a huge and potentially
[8] enduring impact on everyday life. Our work and social
lives have gone virtual; [9] movie studios, gyms, musicians,
and karaoke bars are streaming their content straight into
our homes. The outbreak has also revived impassioned
debates about the U.S. health-care system, possibly offering
[10] a hindrance to those in favor of universal coverage.
The Spanish Flu and the economic depression that
followed led to a wave of nationalism, authoritarianism, and
another world war. [11] Therefore, with the onset of
COVID-19, countries should be united against a common
viral enemy. We’ve forgotten a lot of the lessons that we
learned after the Spanish Flu and other pandemics, Spinney
says. We may be about to learn them again.

8 / 44

8. Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
How Pandemics Change Society
The black death, the Spanish flu, and other disease
outbreaks have transformed how people live. Will COVID-
19 change the world? It will do so, if it is similar to the
pandemics of the past. Plagues and viral contagions have
regularly [1] improved the course of human civilization.
“Things are never the same after a pandemic as they were
before, said Dr. Liam Fox, [2] who’s studied these
outbreaks for a forthcoming book. The current outbreak
will be no exception.”
The earliest pandemic [3] has occurred during the
Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. Now believed to have been
a form of typhoid fever, that particular plague passed
through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt before striking the city
of Athens. (i)The cause of plague is [4] Yersinia pestis: a bacterium
spread by fleas on rodents and it is the same culprit behind
one of the worst pandemics in human history: the Black
Death. [5] (ii) Routine medical inspections became
customary, and hospitals were built throughout Europe to
treat the sick. (iii)The Black Death eventually swept
throughout Europe and wiped out about 200 million people.
(iv) As a result, it forced authorities to institute health
measures that remain in place today. (v) Fourteenth-century
Venice ordered mandated isolation periods, named quaranta
giorni — or quarantine in English — to signify the 40
days of isolation imposed on incoming ships.
The Black Death’s biggest socioeconomic legacy was its
role in ending feudalism. Feudalism was a medieval system
that empowered wealthy nobles to grant the use of their land
to peasants in exchange for [6] there labor. By wiping out a
huge swath of the working population, the Black Death
created a labor shortage that gave peasants the [7] leverage
to negotiate new working terms effectively bringing about
the end of serfdom and paving the way for modern
capitalism. The coronavirus has already had a huge and potentially
[8] enduring impact on everyday life. Our work and social
lives have gone virtual; [9] movie studios, gyms, musicians,
and karaoke bars are streaming their content straight into
our homes. The outbreak has also revived impassioned
debates about the U.S. health-care system, possibly offering
[10] a hindrance to those in favor of universal coverage.
The Spanish Flu and the economic depression that
followed led to a wave of nationalism, authoritarianism, and
another world war. [11] Therefore, with the onset of
COVID-19, countries should be united against a common
viral enemy. We’ve forgotten a lot of the lessons that we
learned after the Spanish Flu and other pandemics, Spinney
says. We may be about to learn them again.

8. Which wording best conveys that the coronavirus’ effect is long lasting?

9 / 44

9. Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
How Pandemics Change Society
The black death, the Spanish flu, and other disease
outbreaks have transformed how people live. Will COVID-
19 change the world? It will do so, if it is similar to the
pandemics of the past. Plagues and viral contagions have
regularly [1] improved the course of human civilization.
“Things are never the same after a pandemic as they were
before, said Dr. Liam Fox, [2] who’s studied these
outbreaks for a forthcoming book. The current outbreak
will be no exception.”
The earliest pandemic [3] has occurred during the
Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. Now believed to have been
a form of typhoid fever, that particular plague passed
through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt before striking the city
of Athens. (i)The cause of plague is [4] Yersinia pestis: a bacterium
spread by fleas on rodents and it is the same culprit behind
one of the worst pandemics in human history: the Black
Death. [5] (ii) Routine medical inspections became
customary, and hospitals were built throughout Europe to
treat the sick. (iii)The Black Death eventually swept
throughout Europe and wiped out about 200 million people.
(iv) As a result, it forced authorities to institute health
measures that remain in place today. (v) Fourteenth-century
Venice ordered mandated isolation periods, named quaranta
giorni — or quarantine in English — to signify the 40
days of isolation imposed on incoming ships.
The Black Death’s biggest socioeconomic legacy was its
role in ending feudalism. Feudalism was a medieval system
that empowered wealthy nobles to grant the use of their land
to peasants in exchange for [6] there labor. By wiping out a
huge swath of the working population, the Black Death
created a labor shortage that gave peasants the [7] leverage
to negotiate new working terms effectively bringing about
the end of serfdom and paving the way for modern
capitalism. The coronavirus has already had a huge and potentially
[8] enduring impact on everyday life. Our work and social
lives have gone virtual; [9] movie studios, gyms, musicians,
and karaoke bars are streaming their content straight into
our homes. The outbreak has also revived impassioned
debates about the U.S. health-care system, possibly offering
[10] a hindrance to those in favor of universal coverage.
The Spanish Flu and the economic depression that
followed led to a wave of nationalism, authoritarianism, and
another world war. [11] Therefore, with the onset of
COVID-19, countries should be united against a common
viral enemy. We’ve forgotten a lot of the lessons that we
learned after the Spanish Flu and other pandemics, Spinney
says. We may be about to learn them again.

9. Which choice is most consistent with the logical flow of the sentence?

10 / 44

10. Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
How Pandemics Change Society
The black death, the Spanish flu, and other disease
outbreaks have transformed how people live. Will COVID-
19 change the world? It will do so, if it is similar to the
pandemics of the past. Plagues and viral contagions have
regularly [1] improved the course of human civilization.
“Things are never the same after a pandemic as they were
before, said Dr. Liam Fox, [2] who’s studied these
outbreaks for a forthcoming book. The current outbreak
will be no exception.”
The earliest pandemic [3] has occurred during the
Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. Now believed to have been
a form of typhoid fever, that particular plague passed
through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt before striking the city
of Athens. (i)The cause of plague is [4] Yersinia pestis: a bacterium
spread by fleas on rodents and it is the same culprit behind
one of the worst pandemics in human history: the Black
Death. [5] (ii) Routine medical inspections became
customary, and hospitals were built throughout Europe to
treat the sick. (iii)The Black Death eventually swept
throughout Europe and wiped out about 200 million people.
(iv) As a result, it forced authorities to institute health
measures that remain in place today. (v) Fourteenth-century
Venice ordered mandated isolation periods, named quaranta
giorni — or quarantine in English — to signify the 40
days of isolation imposed on incoming ships.
The Black Death’s biggest socioeconomic legacy was its
role in ending feudalism. Feudalism was a medieval system
that empowered wealthy nobles to grant the use of their land
to peasants in exchange for [6] there labor. By wiping out a
huge swath of the working population, the Black Death
created a labor shortage that gave peasants the [7] leverage
to negotiate new working terms effectively bringing about
the end of serfdom and paving the way for modern
capitalism. The coronavirus has already had a huge and potentially
[8] enduring impact on everyday life. Our work and social
lives have gone virtual; [9] movie studios, gyms, musicians,
and karaoke bars are streaming their content straight into
our homes. The outbreak has also revived impassioned
debates about the U.S. health-care system, possibly offering
[10] a hindrance to those in favor of universal coverage.
The Spanish Flu and the economic depression that
followed led to a wave of nationalism, authoritarianism, and
another world war. [11] Therefore, with the onset of
COVID-19, countries should be united against a common
viral enemy. We’ve forgotten a lot of the lessons that we
learned after the Spanish Flu and other pandemics, Spinney
says. We may be about to learn them again.

11 / 44

11. Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
How Pandemics Change Society
The black death, the Spanish flu, and other disease
outbreaks have transformed how people live. Will COVID-
19 change the world? It will do so, if it is similar to the
pandemics of the past. Plagues and viral contagions have
regularly [1] improved the course of human civilization.
“Things are never the same after a pandemic as they were
before, said Dr. Liam Fox, [2] who’s studied these
outbreaks for a forthcoming book. The current outbreak
will be no exception.”
The earliest pandemic [3] has occurred during the
Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. Now believed to have been
a form of typhoid fever, that particular plague passed
through Libya, Ethiopia, and Egypt before striking the city
of Athens. (i)The cause of plague is [4] Yersinia pestis: a bacterium
spread by fleas on rodents and it is the same culprit behind
one of the worst pandemics in human history: the Black
Death. [5] (ii) Routine medical inspections became
customary, and hospitals were built throughout Europe to
treat the sick. (iii)The Black Death eventually swept
throughout Europe and wiped out about 200 million people.
(iv) As a result, it forced authorities to institute health
measures that remain in place today. (v) Fourteenth-century
Venice ordered mandated isolation periods, named quaranta
giorni — or quarantine in English — to signify the 40
days of isolation imposed on incoming ships.
The Black Death’s biggest socioeconomic legacy was its
role in ending feudalism. Feudalism was a medieval system
that empowered wealthy nobles to grant the use of their land
to peasants in exchange for [6] there labor. By wiping out a
huge swath of the working population, the Black Death
created a labor shortage that gave peasants the [7] leverage
to negotiate new working terms effectively bringing about
the end of serfdom and paving the way for modern
capitalism. The coronavirus has already had a huge and potentially
[8] enduring impact on everyday life. Our work and social
lives have gone virtual; [9] movie studios, gyms, musicians,
and karaoke bars are streaming their content straight into
our homes. The outbreak has also revived impassioned
debates about the U.S. health-care system, possibly offering
[10] a hindrance to those in favor of universal coverage.
The Spanish Flu and the economic depression that
followed led to a wave of nationalism, authoritarianism, and
another world war. [11] Therefore, with the onset of
COVID-19, countries should be united against a common
viral enemy. We’ve forgotten a lot of the lessons that we
learned after the Spanish Flu and other pandemics, Spinney
says. We may be about to learn them again.

11. What would most logically follow this sentence while being consistent with the rest of the paragraph?

12 / 44

12. Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
and supplementary material.
Land Use
Agriculture is the oldest use of land for growing crops
and rearing animals. Half of the world’s habitable land is
used for agriculture. Extensive land use has a major
impact on the earth’s environment [12] when it reduces
wilderness and threatens biodiversity. Reducing the
consumption of resource-intensive products and
increasing the productivity of land makes it possible to
produce food with much smaller inputs [13], and
reducing the impact on the environment.
Half of the world’s habitable land [14] is used for
agriculture. For much of human history, most of the
world’s land was wilderness: forests, grasslands and
shrubbery [15] dominated it’s landscapes. Over the last
few centuries, this has changed dramatically.
If we [16] are to break down global land area, we
would realize that [17] 10% of the world is covered by
glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry
salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. This
leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Half of all habitable
land is used for agriculture. The remainder is only 37%
forests; 11% as shrubs and grasslands; 1% as freshwater
coverage; and the remaining 1% – a much smaller share
than many suspect – is built-up urban area.
There is also a [18] highly and unequal distribution
of land use between livestock and crops for human
consumption. If we combine pastures used for grazing
with land used to grow crops for animal feed, livestock
accounts for 77% of global farming land. [19] While
livestock takes up most of the world’s agricultural land
it only produces 18% of the world’s calories and 37% of
total protein.
There are two main uses of agricultural land: arable
farming (which is land dedicated to growing crops), and
pastureland (which includes meadows and pastures used
for livestock rearing). In many countries, land use for
livestock grazing is dominant relative to arable farming.
For most countries, land dedicated to cropland is
typically below 20 percent, with many countries
dedicating less than 10 percent. [20] Besides, countries
in South Asia and Europe allocate a large share of land
area to arable farming. India, Bangladesh, Ukraine and
Denmark dedicated more than half of their total land
area to cropland in 2015. For most countries,
the majority of agricultural land is
used as pastureland for [21] nurturing livestock. In
contrast to arable farming, land use for livestock in
Europe and South Asia, in particular, is typically less
than 20 percent. However, most continental regions have
countries where pastureland reaches close to half of total
land area. In some countries, this can reach up to 70
percent. [22] Livestock farming can take place across a
range of diverse climatic and environmental regions.

13 / 44

13. Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
and supplementary material.
Land Use
Agriculture is the oldest use of land for growing crops
and rearing animals. Half of the world’s habitable land is
used for agriculture. Extensive land use has a major
impact on the earth’s environment [12] when it reduces
wilderness and threatens biodiversity. Reducing the
consumption of resource-intensive products and
increasing the productivity of land makes it possible to
produce food with much smaller inputs [13], and
reducing the impact on the environment.
Half of the world’s habitable land [14] is used for
agriculture. For much of human history, most of the
world’s land was wilderness: forests, grasslands and
shrubbery [15] dominated it’s landscapes. Over the last
few centuries, this has changed dramatically.
If we [16] are to break down global land area, we
would realize that [17] 10% of the world is covered by
glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry
salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. This
leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Half of all habitable
land is used for agriculture. The remainder is only 37%
forests; 11% as shrubs and grasslands; 1% as freshwater
coverage; and the remaining 1% – a much smaller share
than many suspect – is built-up urban area.
There is also a [18] highly and unequal distribution
of land use between livestock and crops for human
consumption. If we combine pastures used for grazing
with land used to grow crops for animal feed, livestock
accounts for 77% of global farming land. [19] While
livestock takes up most of the world’s agricultural land
it only produces 18% of the world’s calories and 37% of
total protein.
There are two main uses of agricultural land: arable
farming (which is land dedicated to growing crops), and
pastureland (which includes meadows and pastures used
for livestock rearing). In many countries, land use for
livestock grazing is dominant relative to arable farming.
For most countries, land dedicated to cropland is
typically below 20 percent, with many countries
dedicating less than 10 percent. [20] Besides, countries
in South Asia and Europe allocate a large share of land
area to arable farming. India, Bangladesh, Ukraine and
Denmark dedicated more than half of their total land
area to cropland in 2015. For most countries,
the majority of agricultural land is
used as pastureland for [21] nurturing livestock. In
contrast to arable farming, land use for livestock in
Europe and South Asia, in particular, is typically less
than 20 percent. However, most continental regions have
countries where pastureland reaches close to half of total
land area. In some countries, this can reach up to 70
percent. [22] Livestock farming can take place across a
range of diverse climatic and environmental regions.

14 / 44

14. Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
and supplementary material.
Land Use
Agriculture is the oldest use of land for growing crops
and rearing animals. Half of the world’s habitable land is
used for agriculture. Extensive land use has a major
impact on the earth’s environment [12] when it reduces
wilderness and threatens biodiversity. Reducing the
consumption of resource-intensive products and
increasing the productivity of land makes it possible to
produce food with much smaller inputs [13], and
reducing the impact on the environment.
Half of the world’s habitable land [14] is used for
agriculture. For much of human history, most of the
world’s land was wilderness: forests, grasslands and
shrubbery [15] dominated it’s landscapes. Over the last
few centuries, this has changed dramatically.
If we [16] are to break down global land area, we
would realize that [17] 10% of the world is covered by
glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry
salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. This
leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Half of all habitable
land is used for agriculture. The remainder is only 37%
forests; 11% as shrubs and grasslands; 1% as freshwater
coverage; and the remaining 1% – a much smaller share
than many suspect – is built-up urban area.
There is also a [18] highly and unequal distribution
of land use between livestock and crops for human
consumption. If we combine pastures used for grazing
with land used to grow crops for animal feed, livestock
accounts for 77% of global farming land. [19] While
livestock takes up most of the world’s agricultural land
it only produces 18% of the world’s calories and 37% of
total protein.
There are two main uses of agricultural land: arable
farming (which is land dedicated to growing crops), and
pastureland (which includes meadows and pastures used
for livestock rearing). In many countries, land use for
livestock grazing is dominant relative to arable farming.
For most countries, land dedicated to cropland is
typically below 20 percent, with many countries
dedicating less than 10 percent. [20] Besides, countries
in South Asia and Europe allocate a large share of land
area to arable farming. India, Bangladesh, Ukraine and
Denmark dedicated more than half of their total land
area to cropland in 2015. For most countries,
the majority of agricultural land is
used as pastureland for [21] nurturing livestock. In
contrast to arable farming, land use for livestock in
Europe and South Asia, in particular, is typically less
than 20 percent. However, most continental regions have
countries where pastureland reaches close to half of total
land area. In some countries, this can reach up to 70
percent. [22] Livestock farming can take place across a
range of diverse climatic and environmental regions.

15 / 44

15. Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
and supplementary material.
Land Use
Agriculture is the oldest use of land for growing crops
and rearing animals. Half of the world’s habitable land is
used for agriculture. Extensive land use has a major
impact on the earth’s environment [12] when it reduces
wilderness and threatens biodiversity. Reducing the
consumption of resource-intensive products and
increasing the productivity of land makes it possible to
produce food with much smaller inputs [13], and
reducing the impact on the environment.
Half of the world’s habitable land [14] is used for
agriculture. For much of human history, most of the
world’s land was wilderness: forests, grasslands and
shrubbery [15] dominated it’s landscapes. Over the last
few centuries, this has changed dramatically.
If we [16] are to break down global land area, we
would realize that [17] 10% of the world is covered by
glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry
salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. This
leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Half of all habitable
land is used for agriculture. The remainder is only 37%
forests; 11% as shrubs and grasslands; 1% as freshwater
coverage; and the remaining 1% – a much smaller share
than many suspect – is built-up urban area.
There is also a [18] highly and unequal distribution
of land use between livestock and crops for human
consumption. If we combine pastures used for grazing
with land used to grow crops for animal feed, livestock
accounts for 77% of global farming land. [19] While
livestock takes up most of the world’s agricultural land
it only produces 18% of the world’s calories and 37% of
total protein.
There are two main uses of agricultural land: arable
farming (which is land dedicated to growing crops), and
pastureland (which includes meadows and pastures used
for livestock rearing). In many countries, land use for
livestock grazing is dominant relative to arable farming.
For most countries, land dedicated to cropland is
typically below 20 percent, with many countries
dedicating less than 10 percent. [20] Besides, countries
in South Asia and Europe allocate a large share of land
area to arable farming. India, Bangladesh, Ukraine and
Denmark dedicated more than half of their total land
area to cropland in 2015. For most countries,
the majority of agricultural land is
used as pastureland for [21] nurturing livestock. In
contrast to arable farming, land use for livestock in
Europe and South Asia, in particular, is typically less
than 20 percent. However, most continental regions have
countries where pastureland reaches close to half of total
land area. In some countries, this can reach up to 70
percent. [22] Livestock farming can take place across a
range of diverse climatic and environmental regions.

16 / 44

16. Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
and supplementary material.
Land Use
Agriculture is the oldest use of land for growing crops
and rearing animals. Half of the world’s habitable land is
used for agriculture. Extensive land use has a major
impact on the earth’s environment [12] when it reduces
wilderness and threatens biodiversity. Reducing the
consumption of resource-intensive products and
increasing the productivity of land makes it possible to
produce food with much smaller inputs [13], and
reducing the impact on the environment.
Half of the world’s habitable land [14] is used for
agriculture. For much of human history, most of the
world’s land was wilderness: forests, grasslands and
shrubbery [15] dominated it’s landscapes. Over the last
few centuries, this has changed dramatically.
If we [16] are to break down global land area, we
would realize that [17] 10% of the world is covered by
glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry
salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. This
leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Half of all habitable
land is used for agriculture. The remainder is only 37%
forests; 11% as shrubs and grasslands; 1% as freshwater
coverage; and the remaining 1% – a much smaller share
than many suspect – is built-up urban area.
There is also a [18] highly and unequal distribution
of land use between livestock and crops for human
consumption. If we combine pastures used for grazing
with land used to grow crops for animal feed, livestock
accounts for 77% of global farming land. [19] While
livestock takes up most of the world’s agricultural land
it only produces 18% of the world’s calories and 37% of
total protein.
There are two main uses of agricultural land: arable
farming (which is land dedicated to growing crops), and
pastureland (which includes meadows and pastures used
for livestock rearing). In many countries, land use for
livestock grazing is dominant relative to arable farming.
For most countries, land dedicated to cropland is
typically below 20 percent, with many countries
dedicating less than 10 percent. [20] Besides, countries
in South Asia and Europe allocate a large share of land
area to arable farming. India, Bangladesh, Ukraine and
Denmark dedicated more than half of their total land
area to cropland in 2015. For most countries,
the majority of agricultural land is
used as pastureland for [21] nurturing livestock. In
contrast to arable farming, land use for livestock in
Europe and South Asia, in particular, is typically less
than 20 percent. However, most continental regions have
countries where pastureland reaches close to half of total
land area. In some countries, this can reach up to 70
percent. [22] Livestock farming can take place across a
range of diverse climatic and environmental regions.

17 / 44

17. Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
and supplementary material.
Land Use
Agriculture is the oldest use of land for growing crops
and rearing animals. Half of the world’s habitable land is
used for agriculture. Extensive land use has a major
impact on the earth’s environment [12] when it reduces
wilderness and threatens biodiversity. Reducing the
consumption of resource-intensive products and
increasing the productivity of land makes it possible to
produce food with much smaller inputs [13], and
reducing the impact on the environment.
Half of the world’s habitable land [14] is used for
agriculture. For much of human history, most of the
world’s land was wilderness: forests, grasslands and
shrubbery [15] dominated it’s landscapes. Over the last
few centuries, this has changed dramatically.
If we [16] are to break down global land area, we
would realize that [17] 10% of the world is covered by
glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry
salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. This
leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Half of all habitable
land is used for agriculture. The remainder is only 37%
forests; 11% as shrubs and grasslands; 1% as freshwater
coverage; and the remaining 1% – a much smaller share
than many suspect – is built-up urban area.
There is also a [18] highly and unequal distribution
of land use between livestock and crops for human
consumption. If we combine pastures used for grazing
with land used to grow crops for animal feed, livestock
accounts for 77% of global farming land. [19] While
livestock takes up most of the world’s agricultural land
it only produces 18% of the world’s calories and 37% of
total protein.
There are two main uses of agricultural land: arable
farming (which is land dedicated to growing crops), and
pastureland (which includes meadows and pastures used
for livestock rearing). In many countries, land use for
livestock grazing is dominant relative to arable farming.
For most countries, land dedicated to cropland is
typically below 20 percent, with many countries
dedicating less than 10 percent. [20] Besides, countries
in South Asia and Europe allocate a large share of land
area to arable farming. India, Bangladesh, Ukraine and
Denmark dedicated more than half of their total land
area to cropland in 2015. For most countries,
the majority of agricultural land is
used as pastureland for [21] nurturing livestock. In
contrast to arable farming, land use for livestock in
Europe and South Asia, in particular, is typically less
than 20 percent. However, most continental regions have
countries where pastureland reaches close to half of total
land area. In some countries, this can reach up to 70
percent. [22] Livestock farming can take place across a
range of diverse climatic and environmental regions.

17. Which choice gives the most accurate interpretation of the data in the graph?

18 / 44

18. Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
and supplementary material.
Land Use
Agriculture is the oldest use of land for growing crops
and rearing animals. Half of the world’s habitable land is
used for agriculture. Extensive land use has a major
impact on the earth’s environment [12] when it reduces
wilderness and threatens biodiversity. Reducing the
consumption of resource-intensive products and
increasing the productivity of land makes it possible to
produce food with much smaller inputs [13], and
reducing the impact on the environment.
Half of the world’s habitable land [14] is used for
agriculture. For much of human history, most of the
world’s land was wilderness: forests, grasslands and
shrubbery [15] dominated it’s landscapes. Over the last
few centuries, this has changed dramatically.
If we [16] are to break down global land area, we
would realize that [17] 10% of the world is covered by
glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry
salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. This
leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Half of all habitable
land is used for agriculture. The remainder is only 37%
forests; 11% as shrubs and grasslands; 1% as freshwater
coverage; and the remaining 1% – a much smaller share
than many suspect – is built-up urban area.
There is also a [18] highly and unequal distribution
of land use between livestock and crops for human
consumption. If we combine pastures used for grazing
with land used to grow crops for animal feed, livestock
accounts for 77% of global farming land. [19] While
livestock takes up most of the world’s agricultural land
it only produces 18% of the world’s calories and 37% of
total protein.
There are two main uses of agricultural land: arable
farming (which is land dedicated to growing crops), and
pastureland (which includes meadows and pastures used
for livestock rearing). In many countries, land use for
livestock grazing is dominant relative to arable farming.
For most countries, land dedicated to cropland is
typically below 20 percent, with many countries
dedicating less than 10 percent. [20] Besides, countries
in South Asia and Europe allocate a large share of land
area to arable farming. India, Bangladesh, Ukraine and
Denmark dedicated more than half of their total land
area to cropland in 2015. For most countries,
the majority of agricultural land is
used as pastureland for [21] nurturing livestock. In
contrast to arable farming, land use for livestock in
Europe and South Asia, in particular, is typically less
than 20 percent. However, most continental regions have
countries where pastureland reaches close to half of total
land area. In some countries, this can reach up to 70
percent. [22] Livestock farming can take place across a
range of diverse climatic and environmental regions.

19 / 44

19. Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
and supplementary material.
Land Use
Agriculture is the oldest use of land for growing crops
and rearing animals. Half of the world’s habitable land is
used for agriculture. Extensive land use has a major
impact on the earth’s environment [12] when it reduces
wilderness and threatens biodiversity. Reducing the
consumption of resource-intensive products and
increasing the productivity of land makes it possible to
produce food with much smaller inputs [13], and
reducing the impact on the environment.
Half of the world’s habitable land [14] is used for
agriculture. For much of human history, most of the
world’s land was wilderness: forests, grasslands and
shrubbery [15] dominated it’s landscapes. Over the last
few centuries, this has changed dramatically.
If we [16] are to break down global land area, we
would realize that [17] 10% of the world is covered by
glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry
salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. This
leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Half of all habitable
land is used for agriculture. The remainder is only 37%
forests; 11% as shrubs and grasslands; 1% as freshwater
coverage; and the remaining 1% – a much smaller share
than many suspect – is built-up urban area.
There is also a [18] highly and unequal distribution
of land use between livestock and crops for human
consumption. If we combine pastures used for grazing
with land used to grow crops for animal feed, livestock
accounts for 77% of global farming land. [19] While
livestock takes up most of the world’s agricultural land
it only produces 18% of the world’s calories and 37% of
total protein.
There are two main uses of agricultural land: arable
farming (which is land dedicated to growing crops), and
pastureland (which includes meadows and pastures used
for livestock rearing). In many countries, land use for
livestock grazing is dominant relative to arable farming.
For most countries, land dedicated to cropland is
typically below 20 percent, with many countries
dedicating less than 10 percent. [20] Besides, countries
in South Asia and Europe allocate a large share of land
area to arable farming. India, Bangladesh, Ukraine and
Denmark dedicated more than half of their total land
area to cropland in 2015. For most countries,
the majority of agricultural land is
used as pastureland for [21] nurturing livestock. In
contrast to arable farming, land use for livestock in
Europe and South Asia, in particular, is typically less
than 20 percent. However, most continental regions have
countries where pastureland reaches close to half of total
land area. In some countries, this can reach up to 70
percent. [22] Livestock farming can take place across a
range of diverse climatic and environmental regions.

20 / 44

20. Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
and supplementary material.
Land Use
Agriculture is the oldest use of land for growing crops
and rearing animals. Half of the world’s habitable land is
used for agriculture. Extensive land use has a major
impact on the earth’s environment [12] when it reduces
wilderness and threatens biodiversity. Reducing the
consumption of resource-intensive products and
increasing the productivity of land makes it possible to
produce food with much smaller inputs [13], and
reducing the impact on the environment.
Half of the world’s habitable land [14] is used for
agriculture. For much of human history, most of the
world’s land was wilderness: forests, grasslands and
shrubbery [15] dominated it’s landscapes. Over the last
few centuries, this has changed dramatically.
If we [16] are to break down global land area, we
would realize that [17] 10% of the world is covered by
glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry
salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. This
leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Half of all habitable
land is used for agriculture. The remainder is only 37%
forests; 11% as shrubs and grasslands; 1% as freshwater
coverage; and the remaining 1% – a much smaller share
than many suspect – is built-up urban area.
There is also a [18] highly and unequal distribution
of land use between livestock and crops for human
consumption. If we combine pastures used for grazing
with land used to grow crops for animal feed, livestock
accounts for 77% of global farming land. [19] While
livestock takes up most of the world’s agricultural land
it only produces 18% of the world’s calories and 37% of
total protein.
There are two main uses of agricultural land: arable
farming (which is land dedicated to growing crops), and
pastureland (which includes meadows and pastures used
for livestock rearing). In many countries, land use for
livestock grazing is dominant relative to arable farming.
For most countries, land dedicated to cropland is
typically below 20 percent, with many countries
dedicating less than 10 percent. [20] Besides, countries
in South Asia and Europe allocate a large share of land
area to arable farming. India, Bangladesh, Ukraine and
Denmark dedicated more than half of their total land
area to cropland in 2015. For most countries,
the majority of agricultural land is
used as pastureland for [21] nurturing livestock. In
contrast to arable farming, land use for livestock in
Europe and South Asia, in particular, is typically less
than 20 percent. However, most continental regions have
countries where pastureland reaches close to half of total
land area. In some countries, this can reach up to 70
percent. [22] Livestock farming can take place across a
range of diverse climatic and environmental regions.

21 / 44

21. Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
and supplementary material.
Land Use
Agriculture is the oldest use of land for growing crops
and rearing animals. Half of the world’s habitable land is
used for agriculture. Extensive land use has a major
impact on the earth’s environment [12] when it reduces
wilderness and threatens biodiversity. Reducing the
consumption of resource-intensive products and
increasing the productivity of land makes it possible to
produce food with much smaller inputs [13], and
reducing the impact on the environment.
Half of the world’s habitable land [14] is used for
agriculture. For much of human history, most of the
world’s land was wilderness: forests, grasslands and
shrubbery [15] dominated it’s landscapes. Over the last
few centuries, this has changed dramatically.
If we [16] are to break down global land area, we
would realize that [17] 10% of the world is covered by
glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry
salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. This
leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Half of all habitable
land is used for agriculture. The remainder is only 37%
forests; 11% as shrubs and grasslands; 1% as freshwater
coverage; and the remaining 1% – a much smaller share
than many suspect – is built-up urban area.
There is also a [18] highly and unequal distribution
of land use between livestock and crops for human
consumption. If we combine pastures used for grazing
with land used to grow crops for animal feed, livestock
accounts for 77% of global farming land. [19] While
livestock takes up most of the world’s agricultural land
it only produces 18% of the world’s calories and 37% of
total protein.
There are two main uses of agricultural land: arable
farming (which is land dedicated to growing crops), and
pastureland (which includes meadows and pastures used
for livestock rearing). In many countries, land use for
livestock grazing is dominant relative to arable farming.
For most countries, land dedicated to cropland is
typically below 20 percent, with many countries
dedicating less than 10 percent. [20] Besides, countries
in South Asia and Europe allocate a large share of land
area to arable farming. India, Bangladesh, Ukraine and
Denmark dedicated more than half of their total land
area to cropland in 2015. For most countries,
the majority of agricultural land is
used as pastureland for [21] nurturing livestock. In
contrast to arable farming, land use for livestock in
Europe and South Asia, in particular, is typically less
than 20 percent. However, most continental regions have
countries where pastureland reaches close to half of total
land area. In some countries, this can reach up to 70
percent. [22] Livestock farming can take place across a
range of diverse climatic and environmental regions.

21. Which word would be better suited for the context?

22 / 44

22. Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
and supplementary material.
Land Use
Agriculture is the oldest use of land for growing crops
and rearing animals. Half of the world’s habitable land is
used for agriculture. Extensive land use has a major
impact on the earth’s environment [12] when it reduces
wilderness and threatens biodiversity. Reducing the
consumption of resource-intensive products and
increasing the productivity of land makes it possible to
produce food with much smaller inputs [13], and
reducing the impact on the environment.
Half of the world’s habitable land [14] is used for
agriculture. For much of human history, most of the
world’s land was wilderness: forests, grasslands and
shrubbery [15] dominated it’s landscapes. Over the last
few centuries, this has changed dramatically.
If we [16] are to break down global land area, we
would realize that [17] 10% of the world is covered by
glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry
salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. This
leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Half of all habitable
land is used for agriculture. The remainder is only 37%
forests; 11% as shrubs and grasslands; 1% as freshwater
coverage; and the remaining 1% – a much smaller share
than many suspect – is built-up urban area.
There is also a [18] highly and unequal distribution
of land use between livestock and crops for human
consumption. If we combine pastures used for grazing
with land used to grow crops for animal feed, livestock
accounts for 77% of global farming land. [19] While
livestock takes up most of the world’s agricultural land
it only produces 18% of the world’s calories and 37% of
total protein.
There are two main uses of agricultural land: arable
farming (which is land dedicated to growing crops), and
pastureland (which includes meadows and pastures used
for livestock rearing). In many countries, land use for
livestock grazing is dominant relative to arable farming.
For most countries, land dedicated to cropland is
typically below 20 percent, with many countries
dedicating less than 10 percent. [20] Besides, countries
in South Asia and Europe allocate a large share of land
area to arable farming. India, Bangladesh, Ukraine and
Denmark dedicated more than half of their total land
area to cropland in 2015. For most countries,
the majority of agricultural land is
used as pastureland for [21] nurturing livestock. In
contrast to arable farming, land use for livestock in
Europe and South Asia, in particular, is typically less
than 20 percent. However, most continental regions have
countries where pastureland reaches close to half of total
land area. In some countries, this can reach up to 70
percent. [22] Livestock farming can take place across a
range of diverse climatic and environmental regions.

22. Which choice would emphasize the fact that livestock farming is less geographically constrained?

23 / 44

23. Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Will You Lose Your Job to a Robot?
Automation has become a threat to society, and rapid
technological advances are enabling machines to perform
a growing number of tasks traditionally done by humans.
Law firms now use artificial intelligence (AI) [23] to
conduct contract analysis, for hunting down client
conflicts, and even craft litigation strategy. McDonald’s is
replacing drive-thru workers with order-taking AI, and
cashiers with self-checkout kiosks. From 1990 to 2007,
[24] robots replaced about 670,000 U.S. jobs, mostly in
manufacturing; every robot introduced into a local
economy claimed 6.2 jobs. That trend will accelerate over
the next decade, as advances in mobile technology, AI,
data transfer, and computing speed [25] allows robots to
act with greater independence. Oxford University
researchers [26] concluded and established the result in a
major 2013 study that 47 percent of American jobs are at
“high risk” of automation within two decades.
Jobs that are mostly at risk are those involving
repetitive physical tasks in predictable environments.
[27] The Palm Beach County Court recently began using
four robots — Wally Bishop, Rosie Tobor, Kitt Robbie,
and Speedy — to read court filings, fill out docket sheets,
and input data into its case management system. In theory,
at least 91 percent of a short-order cook’s tasks can be
automated using existing technology. It’s 100 percent for a
dredge operator, plasterer, stucco mason, motion picture
projectionist, and logging equipment operator.
[28] Similarly, jobs that involve managing people, social
interaction, and creative thinking, will see less
automation. But even the jobs you’d think are safe aren’t.
The Guardian Australia newspaper published its first
article this year written entirely by a computer. The Indian
e-commerce site Myntra recently created one of its
bestselling T-shirts by delegating the design [29] for two
algorithms that analyzed previous designs and invented
new ones. Despite the number of people losing their jobs to
automation, many prophesy that artificial intelligence is
still years away from sending all of humanity on a
permanent vacation. [30] History has shown that previous
fateful warnings about technology wiping out the need for
human labor [31] have proved untrue — although there is
often a difficult transition period to new jobs requiring
new skills.
In the 19th century, farmers rendered [32] out of fashion
by mechanized agriculture found their way to new, better
paying jobs in factories. When industrial
automation in the 20th century threatened
factory workers, [33] this created an ever-growing pool of
unemployable humans who could not compete
economically with machines. If history is any guide,
According to 2013 study, we could also expect that 8 to 9
percent of 2030 labor demand will be in new types of
occupations that have not existed before.

24 / 44

24. Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Will You Lose Your Job to a Robot?
Automation has become a threat to society, and rapid
technological advances are enabling machines to perform
a growing number of tasks traditionally done by humans.
Law firms now use artificial intelligence (AI) [23] to
conduct contract analysis, for hunting down client
conflicts, and even craft litigation strategy. McDonald’s is
replacing drive-thru workers with order-taking AI, and
cashiers with self-checkout kiosks. From 1990 to 2007,
[24] robots replaced about 670,000 U.S. jobs, mostly in
manufacturing; every robot introduced into a local
economy claimed 6.2 jobs. That trend will accelerate over
the next decade, as advances in mobile technology, AI,
data transfer, and computing speed [25] allows robots to
act with greater independence. Oxford University
researchers [26] concluded and established the result in a
major 2013 study that 47 percent of American jobs are at
“high risk” of automation within two decades.
Jobs that are mostly at risk are those involving
repetitive physical tasks in predictable environments.
[27] The Palm Beach County Court recently began using
four robots — Wally Bishop, Rosie Tobor, Kitt Robbie,
and Speedy — to read court filings, fill out docket sheets,
and input data into its case management system. In theory,
at least 91 percent of a short-order cook’s tasks can be
automated using existing technology. It’s 100 percent for a
dredge operator, plasterer, stucco mason, motion picture
projectionist, and logging equipment operator.
[28] Similarly, jobs that involve managing people, social
interaction, and creative thinking, will see less
automation. But even the jobs you’d think are safe aren’t.
The Guardian Australia newspaper published its first
article this year written entirely by a computer. The Indian
e-commerce site Myntra recently created one of its
bestselling T-shirts by delegating the design [29] for two
algorithms that analyzed previous designs and invented
new ones. Despite the number of people losing their jobs to
automation, many prophesy that artificial intelligence is
still years away from sending all of humanity on a
permanent vacation. [30] History has shown that previous
fateful warnings about technology wiping out the need for
human labor [31] have proved untrue — although there is
often a difficult transition period to new jobs requiring
new skills.
In the 19th century, farmers rendered [32] out of fashion
by mechanized agriculture found their way to new, better
paying jobs in factories. When industrial
automation in the 20th century threatened
factory workers, [33] this created an ever-growing pool of
unemployable humans who could not compete
economically with machines. If history is any guide,
According to 2013 study, we could also expect that 8 to 9
percent of 2030 labor demand will be in new types of
occupations that have not existed before.

25 / 44

25. Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Will You Lose Your Job to a Robot?
Automation has become a threat to society, and rapid
technological advances are enabling machines to perform
a growing number of tasks traditionally done by humans.
Law firms now use artificial intelligence (AI) [23] to
conduct contract analysis, for hunting down client
conflicts, and even craft litigation strategy. McDonald’s is
replacing drive-thru workers with order-taking AI, and
cashiers with self-checkout kiosks. From 1990 to 2007,
[24] robots replaced about 670,000 U.S. jobs, mostly in
manufacturing; every robot introduced into a local
economy claimed 6.2 jobs. That trend will accelerate over
the next decade, as advances in mobile technology, AI,
data transfer, and computing speed [25] allows robots to
act with greater independence. Oxford University
researchers [26] concluded and established the result in a
major 2013 study that 47 percent of American jobs are at
“high risk” of automation within two decades.
Jobs that are mostly at risk are those involving
repetitive physical tasks in predictable environments.
[27] The Palm Beach County Court recently began using
four robots — Wally Bishop, Rosie Tobor, Kitt Robbie,
and Speedy — to read court filings, fill out docket sheets,
and input data into its case management system. In theory,
at least 91 percent of a short-order cook’s tasks can be
automated using existing technology. It’s 100 percent for a
dredge operator, plasterer, stucco mason, motion picture
projectionist, and logging equipment operator.
[28] Similarly, jobs that involve managing people, social
interaction, and creative thinking, will see less
automation. But even the jobs you’d think are safe aren’t.
The Guardian Australia newspaper published its first
article this year written entirely by a computer. The Indian
e-commerce site Myntra recently created one of its
bestselling T-shirts by delegating the design [29] for two
algorithms that analyzed previous designs and invented
new ones. Despite the number of people losing their jobs to
automation, many prophesy that artificial intelligence is
still years away from sending all of humanity on a
permanent vacation. [30] History has shown that previous
fateful warnings about technology wiping out the need for
human labor [31] have proved untrue — although there is
often a difficult transition period to new jobs requiring
new skills.
In the 19th century, farmers rendered [32] out of fashion
by mechanized agriculture found their way to new, better
paying jobs in factories. When industrial
automation in the 20th century threatened
factory workers, [33] this created an ever-growing pool of
unemployable humans who could not compete
economically with machines. If history is any guide,
According to 2013 study, we could also expect that 8 to 9
percent of 2030 labor demand will be in new types of
occupations that have not existed before.

26 / 44

26. Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Will You Lose Your Job to a Robot?
Automation has become a threat to society, and rapid
technological advances are enabling machines to perform
a growing number of tasks traditionally done by humans.
Law firms now use artificial intelligence (AI) [23] to
conduct contract analysis, for hunting down client
conflicts, and even craft litigation strategy. McDonald’s is
replacing drive-thru workers with order-taking AI, and
cashiers with self-checkout kiosks. From 1990 to 2007,
[24] robots replaced about 670,000 U.S. jobs, mostly in
manufacturing; every robot introduced into a local
economy claimed 6.2 jobs. That trend will accelerate over
the next decade, as advances in mobile technology, AI,
data transfer, and computing speed [25] allows robots to
act with greater independence. Oxford University
researchers [26] concluded and established the result in a
major 2013 study that 47 percent of American jobs are at
“high risk” of automation within two decades.
Jobs that are mostly at risk are those involving
repetitive physical tasks in predictable environments.
[27] The Palm Beach County Court recently began using
four robots — Wally Bishop, Rosie Tobor, Kitt Robbie,
and Speedy — to read court filings, fill out docket sheets,
and input data into its case management system. In theory,
at least 91 percent of a short-order cook’s tasks can be
automated using existing technology. It’s 100 percent for a
dredge operator, plasterer, stucco mason, motion picture
projectionist, and logging equipment operator.
[28] Similarly, jobs that involve managing people, social
interaction, and creative thinking, will see less
automation. But even the jobs you’d think are safe aren’t.
The Guardian Australia newspaper published its first
article this year written entirely by a computer. The Indian
e-commerce site Myntra recently created one of its
bestselling T-shirts by delegating the design [29] for two
algorithms that analyzed previous designs and invented
new ones. Despite the number of people losing their jobs to
automation, many prophesy that artificial intelligence is
still years away from sending all of humanity on a
permanent vacation. [30] History has shown that previous
fateful warnings about technology wiping out the need for
human labor [31] have proved untrue — although there is
often a difficult transition period to new jobs requiring
new skills.
In the 19th century, farmers rendered [32] out of fashion
by mechanized agriculture found their way to new, better
paying jobs in factories. When industrial
automation in the 20th century threatened
factory workers, [33] this created an ever-growing pool of
unemployable humans who could not compete
economically with machines. If history is any guide,
According to 2013 study, we could also expect that 8 to 9
percent of 2030 labor demand will be in new types of
occupations that have not existed before.

27 / 44

27. Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Will You Lose Your Job to a Robot?
Automation has become a threat to society, and rapid
technological advances are enabling machines to perform
a growing number of tasks traditionally done by humans.
Law firms now use artificial intelligence (AI) [23] to
conduct contract analysis, for hunting down client
conflicts, and even craft litigation strategy. McDonald’s is
replacing drive-thru workers with order-taking AI, and
cashiers with self-checkout kiosks. From 1990 to 2007,
[24] robots replaced about 670,000 U.S. jobs, mostly in
manufacturing; every robot introduced into a local
economy claimed 6.2 jobs. That trend will accelerate over
the next decade, as advances in mobile technology, AI,
data transfer, and computing speed [25] allows robots to
act with greater independence. Oxford University
researchers [26] concluded and established the result in a
major 2013 study that 47 percent of American jobs are at
“high risk” of automation within two decades.
Jobs that are mostly at risk are those involving
repetitive physical tasks in predictable environments.
[27] The Palm Beach County Court recently began using
four robots — Wally Bishop, Rosie Tobor, Kitt Robbie,
and Speedy — to read court filings, fill out docket sheets,
and input data into its case management system. In theory,
at least 91 percent of a short-order cook’s tasks can be
automated using existing technology. It’s 100 percent for a
dredge operator, plasterer, stucco mason, motion picture
projectionist, and logging equipment operator.
[28] Similarly, jobs that involve managing people, social
interaction, and creative thinking, will see less
automation. But even the jobs you’d think are safe aren’t.
The Guardian Australia newspaper published its first
article this year written entirely by a computer. The Indian
e-commerce site Myntra recently created one of its
bestselling T-shirts by delegating the design [29] for two
algorithms that analyzed previous designs and invented
new ones. Despite the number of people losing their jobs to
automation, many prophesy that artificial intelligence is
still years away from sending all of humanity on a
permanent vacation. [30] History has shown that previous
fateful warnings about technology wiping out the need for
human labor [31] have proved untrue — although there is
often a difficult transition period to new jobs requiring
new skills.
In the 19th century, farmers rendered [32] out of fashion
by mechanized agriculture found their way to new, better
paying jobs in factories. When industrial
automation in the 20th century threatened
factory workers, [33] this created an ever-growing pool of
unemployable humans who could not compete
economically with machines. If history is any guide,
According to 2013 study, we could also expect that 8 to 9
percent of 2030 labor demand will be in new types of
occupations that have not existed before.

27. The writer is considering inserting this sentence at this point in the passage:
“For instance, some restaurants in China have already begun replacing servers with robots.”
Should he make this insertion?

28 / 44

28. Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Will You Lose Your Job to a Robot?
Automation has become a threat to society, and rapid
technological advances are enabling machines to perform
a growing number of tasks traditionally done by humans.
Law firms now use artificial intelligence (AI) [23] to
conduct contract analysis, for hunting down client
conflicts, and even craft litigation strategy. McDonald’s is
replacing drive-thru workers with order-taking AI, and
cashiers with self-checkout kiosks. From 1990 to 2007,
[24] robots replaced about 670,000 U.S. jobs, mostly in
manufacturing; every robot introduced into a local
economy claimed 6.2 jobs. That trend will accelerate over
the next decade, as advances in mobile technology, AI,
data transfer, and computing speed [25] allows robots to
act with greater independence. Oxford University
researchers [26] concluded and established the result in a
major 2013 study that 47 percent of American jobs are at
“high risk” of automation within two decades.
Jobs that are mostly at risk are those involving
repetitive physical tasks in predictable environments.
[27] The Palm Beach County Court recently began using
four robots — Wally Bishop, Rosie Tobor, Kitt Robbie,
and Speedy — to read court filings, fill out docket sheets,
and input data into its case management system. In theory,
at least 91 percent of a short-order cook’s tasks can be
automated using existing technology. It’s 100 percent for a
dredge operator, plasterer, stucco mason, motion picture
projectionist, and logging equipment operator.
[28] Similarly, jobs that involve managing people, social
interaction, and creative thinking, will see less
automation. But even the jobs you’d think are safe aren’t.
The Guardian Australia newspaper published its first
article this year written entirely by a computer. The Indian
e-commerce site Myntra recently created one of its
bestselling T-shirts by delegating the design [29] for two
algorithms that analyzed previous designs and invented
new ones. Despite the number of people losing their jobs to
automation, many prophesy that artificial intelligence is
still years away from sending all of humanity on a
permanent vacation. [30] History has shown that previous
fateful warnings about technology wiping out the need for
human labor [31] have proved untrue — although there is
often a difficult transition period to new jobs requiring
new skills.
In the 19th century, farmers rendered [32] out of fashion
by mechanized agriculture found their way to new, better
paying jobs in factories. When industrial
automation in the 20th century threatened
factory workers, [33] this created an ever-growing pool of
unemployable humans who could not compete
economically with machines. If history is any guide,
According to 2013 study, we could also expect that 8 to 9
percent of 2030 labor demand will be in new types of
occupations that have not existed before.

29 / 44

29. Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Will You Lose Your Job to a Robot?
Automation has become a threat to society, and rapid
technological advances are enabling machines to perform
a growing number of tasks traditionally done by humans.
Law firms now use artificial intelligence (AI) [23] to
conduct contract analysis, for hunting down client
conflicts, and even craft litigation strategy. McDonald’s is
replacing drive-thru workers with order-taking AI, and
cashiers with self-checkout kiosks. From 1990 to 2007,
[24] robots replaced about 670,000 U.S. jobs, mostly in
manufacturing; every robot introduced into a local
economy claimed 6.2 jobs. That trend will accelerate over
the next decade, as advances in mobile technology, AI,
data transfer, and computing speed [25] allows robots to
act with greater independence. Oxford University
researchers [26] concluded and established the result in a
major 2013 study that 47 percent of American jobs are at
“high risk” of automation within two decades.
Jobs that are mostly at risk are those involving
repetitive physical tasks in predictable environments.
[27] The Palm Beach County Court recently began using
four robots — Wally Bishop, Rosie Tobor, Kitt Robbie,
and Speedy — to read court filings, fill out docket sheets,
and input data into its case management system. In theory,
at least 91 percent of a short-order cook’s tasks can be
automated using existing technology. It’s 100 percent for a
dredge operator, plasterer, stucco mason, motion picture
projectionist, and logging equipment operator.
[28] Similarly, jobs that involve managing people, social
interaction, and creative thinking, will see less
automation. But even the jobs you’d think are safe aren’t.
The Guardian Australia newspaper published its first
article this year written entirely by a computer. The Indian
e-commerce site Myntra recently created one of its
bestselling T-shirts by delegating the design [29] for two
algorithms that analyzed previous designs and invented
new ones. Despite the number of people losing their jobs to
automation, many prophesy that artificial intelligence is
still years away from sending all of humanity on a
permanent vacation. [30] History has shown that previous
fateful warnings about technology wiping out the need for
human labor [31] have proved untrue — although there is
often a difficult transition period to new jobs requiring
new skills.
In the 19th century, farmers rendered [32] out of fashion
by mechanized agriculture found their way to new, better
paying jobs in factories. When industrial
automation in the 20th century threatened
factory workers, [33] this created an ever-growing pool of
unemployable humans who could not compete
economically with machines. If history is any guide,
According to 2013 study, we could also expect that 8 to 9
percent of 2030 labor demand will be in new types of
occupations that have not existed before.

30 / 44

30. Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Will You Lose Your Job to a Robot?
Automation has become a threat to society, and rapid
technological advances are enabling machines to perform
a growing number of tasks traditionally done by humans.
Law firms now use artificial intelligence (AI) [23] to
conduct contract analysis, for hunting down client
conflicts, and even craft litigation strategy. McDonald’s is
replacing drive-thru workers with order-taking AI, and
cashiers with self-checkout kiosks. From 1990 to 2007,
[24] robots replaced about 670,000 U.S. jobs, mostly in
manufacturing; every robot introduced into a local
economy claimed 6.2 jobs. That trend will accelerate over
the next decade, as advances in mobile technology, AI,
data transfer, and computing speed [25] allows robots to
act with greater independence. Oxford University
researchers [26] concluded and established the result in a
major 2013 study that 47 percent of American jobs are at
“high risk” of automation within two decades.
Jobs that are mostly at risk are those involving
repetitive physical tasks in predictable environments.
[27] The Palm Beach County Court recently began using
four robots — Wally Bishop, Rosie Tobor, Kitt Robbie,
and Speedy — to read court filings, fill out docket sheets,
and input data into its case management system. In theory,
at least 91 percent of a short-order cook’s tasks can be
automated using existing technology. It’s 100 percent for a
dredge operator, plasterer, stucco mason, motion picture
projectionist, and logging equipment operator.
[28] Similarly, jobs that involve managing people, social
interaction, and creative thinking, will see less
automation. But even the jobs you’d think are safe aren’t.
The Guardian Australia newspaper published its first
article this year written entirely by a computer. The Indian
e-commerce site Myntra recently created one of its
bestselling T-shirts by delegating the design [29] for two
algorithms that analyzed previous designs and invented
new ones. Despite the number of people losing their jobs to
automation, many prophesy that artificial intelligence is
still years away from sending all of humanity on a
permanent vacation. [30] History has shown that previous
fateful warnings about technology wiping out the need for
human labor [31] have proved untrue — although there is
often a difficult transition period to new jobs requiring
new skills.
In the 19th century, farmers rendered [32] out of fashion
by mechanized agriculture found their way to new, better
paying jobs in factories. When industrial
automation in the 20th century threatened
factory workers, [33] this created an ever-growing pool of
unemployable humans who could not compete
economically with machines. If history is any guide,
According to 2013 study, we could also expect that 8 to 9
percent of 2030 labor demand will be in new types of
occupations that have not existed before.

30. Which choice is most logically inserted at this point in the paragraph?

31 / 44

31. Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Will You Lose Your Job to a Robot?
Automation has become a threat to society, and rapid
technological advances are enabling machines to perform
a growing number of tasks traditionally done by humans.
Law firms now use artificial intelligence (AI) [23] to
conduct contract analysis, for hunting down client
conflicts, and even craft litigation strategy. McDonald’s is
replacing drive-thru workers with order-taking AI, and
cashiers with self-checkout kiosks. From 1990 to 2007,
[24] robots replaced about 670,000 U.S. jobs, mostly in
manufacturing; every robot introduced into a local
economy claimed 6.2 jobs. That trend will accelerate over
the next decade, as advances in mobile technology, AI,
data transfer, and computing speed [25] allows robots to
act with greater independence. Oxford University
researchers [26] concluded and established the result in a
major 2013 study that 47 percent of American jobs are at
“high risk” of automation within two decades.
Jobs that are mostly at risk are those involving
repetitive physical tasks in predictable environments.
[27] The Palm Beach County Court recently began using
four robots — Wally Bishop, Rosie Tobor, Kitt Robbie,
and Speedy — to read court filings, fill out docket sheets,
and input data into its case management system. In theory,
at least 91 percent of a short-order cook’s tasks can be
automated using existing technology. It’s 100 percent for a
dredge operator, plasterer, stucco mason, motion picture
projectionist, and logging equipment operator.
[28] Similarly, jobs that involve managing people, social
interaction, and creative thinking, will see less
automation. But even the jobs you’d think are safe aren’t.
The Guardian Australia newspaper published its first
article this year written entirely by a computer. The Indian
e-commerce site Myntra recently created one of its
bestselling T-shirts by delegating the design [29] for two
algorithms that analyzed previous designs and invented
new ones. Despite the number of people losing their jobs to
automation, many prophesy that artificial intelligence is
still years away from sending all of humanity on a
permanent vacation. [30] History has shown that previous
fateful warnings about technology wiping out the need for
human labor [31] have proved untrue — although there is
often a difficult transition period to new jobs requiring
new skills.
In the 19th century, farmers rendered [32] out of fashion
by mechanized agriculture found their way to new, better
paying jobs in factories. When industrial
automation in the 20th century threatened
factory workers, [33] this created an ever-growing pool of
unemployable humans who could not compete
economically with machines. If history is any guide,
According to 2013 study, we could also expect that 8 to 9
percent of 2030 labor demand will be in new types of
occupations that have not existed before.

32 / 44

32. Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Will You Lose Your Job to a Robot?
Automation has become a threat to society, and rapid
technological advances are enabling machines to perform
a growing number of tasks traditionally done by humans.
Law firms now use artificial intelligence (AI) [23] to
conduct contract analysis, for hunting down client
conflicts, and even craft litigation strategy. McDonald’s is
replacing drive-thru workers with order-taking AI, and
cashiers with self-checkout kiosks. From 1990 to 2007,
[24] robots replaced about 670,000 U.S. jobs, mostly in
manufacturing; every robot introduced into a local
economy claimed 6.2 jobs. That trend will accelerate over
the next decade, as advances in mobile technology, AI,
data transfer, and computing speed [25] allows robots to
act with greater independence. Oxford University
researchers [26] concluded and established the result in a
major 2013 study that 47 percent of American jobs are at
“high risk” of automation within two decades.
Jobs that are mostly at risk are those involving
repetitive physical tasks in predictable environments.
[27] The Palm Beach County Court recently began using
four robots — Wally Bishop, Rosie Tobor, Kitt Robbie,
and Speedy — to read court filings, fill out docket sheets,
and input data into its case management system. In theory,
at least 91 percent of a short-order cook’s tasks can be
automated using existing technology. It’s 100 percent for a
dredge operator, plasterer, stucco mason, motion picture
projectionist, and logging equipment operator.
[28] Similarly, jobs that involve managing people, social
interaction, and creative thinking, will see less
automation. But even the jobs you’d think are safe aren’t.
The Guardian Australia newspaper published its first
article this year written entirely by a computer. The Indian
e-commerce site Myntra recently created one of its
bestselling T-shirts by delegating the design [29] for two
algorithms that analyzed previous designs and invented
new ones. Despite the number of people losing their jobs to
automation, many prophesy that artificial intelligence is
still years away from sending all of humanity on a
permanent vacation. [30] History has shown that previous
fateful warnings about technology wiping out the need for
human labor [31] have proved untrue — although there is
often a difficult transition period to new jobs requiring
new skills.
In the 19th century, farmers rendered [32] out of fashion
by mechanized agriculture found their way to new, better
paying jobs in factories. When industrial
automation in the 20th century threatened
factory workers, [33] this created an ever-growing pool of
unemployable humans who could not compete
economically with machines. If history is any guide,
According to 2013 study, we could also expect that 8 to 9
percent of 2030 labor demand will be in new types of
occupations that have not existed before.

33 / 44

33. Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Will You Lose Your Job to a Robot?
Automation has become a threat to society, and rapid
technological advances are enabling machines to perform
a growing number of tasks traditionally done by humans.
Law firms now use artificial intelligence (AI) [23] to
conduct contract analysis, for hunting down client
conflicts, and even craft litigation strategy. McDonald’s is
replacing drive-thru workers with order-taking AI, and
cashiers with self-checkout kiosks. From 1990 to 2007,
[24] robots replaced about 670,000 U.S. jobs, mostly in
manufacturing; every robot introduced into a local
economy claimed 6.2 jobs. That trend will accelerate over
the next decade, as advances in mobile technology, AI,
data transfer, and computing speed [25] allows robots to
act with greater independence. Oxford University
researchers [26] concluded and established the result in a
major 2013 study that 47 percent of American jobs are at
“high risk” of automation within two decades.
Jobs that are mostly at risk are those involving
repetitive physical tasks in predictable environments.
[27] The Palm Beach County Court recently began using
four robots — Wally Bishop, Rosie Tobor, Kitt Robbie,
and Speedy — to read court filings, fill out docket sheets,
and input data into its case management system. In theory,
at least 91 percent of a short-order cook’s tasks can be
automated using existing technology. It’s 100 percent for a
dredge operator, plasterer, stucco mason, motion picture
projectionist, and logging equipment operator.
[28] Similarly, jobs that involve managing people, social
interaction, and creative thinking, will see less
automation. But even the jobs you’d think are safe aren’t.
The Guardian Australia newspaper published its first
article this year written entirely by a computer. The Indian
e-commerce site Myntra recently created one of its
bestselling T-shirts by delegating the design [29] for two
algorithms that analyzed previous designs and invented
new ones. Despite the number of people losing their jobs to
automation, many prophesy that artificial intelligence is
still years away from sending all of humanity on a
permanent vacation. [30] History has shown that previous
fateful warnings about technology wiping out the need for
human labor [31] have proved untrue — although there is
often a difficult transition period to new jobs requiring
new skills.
In the 19th century, farmers rendered [32] out of fashion
by mechanized agriculture found their way to new, better
paying jobs in factories. When industrial
automation in the 20th century threatened
factory workers, [33] this created an ever-growing pool of
unemployable humans who could not compete
economically with machines. If history is any guide,
According to 2013 study, we could also expect that 8 to 9
percent of 2030 labor demand will be in new types of
occupations that have not existed before.

33. Which of the following would be most consistent with the ending of the paragraph?

34 / 44

34. Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.
Private Investigators in Fiction and Fact
After I graduated from college and was
looking for a job, a newspaper employment ad
caught my eye. It sounded interesting, so I sent
in a résumé. I later discovered that the job was
for a store detective. [34] Duties including
watching for shoplifters and tracking the legally
or ethically questionable actions of store
employees.
The interview was my first hint that real-life
private investigators were not like the characters
one encountered in movies or mystery novels
such as [35] Raymond Chandler’s Philip
Marlowe or Dashiell Hammett’s Sam Spade
whose tough exteriors belie their soft-hearted
natures. [36] Not only do they track down
criminals, but they also solve crimes in the most
figures adhere to an incorruptible
dangerous of circumstances. These heroic
code of personal morality that enables them to
[37] succumb to the most formidable obstacles
as they apprehend criminals and restore order to
society. That is one vision of detective work.
Another image comes out of a more playful
tradition of mystery writing that includes
characters such as [38] Sherlock Holmes the
fictional genius who solves complex crimes—
sometimes without leaving his comfortable
armchair. Holmes approaches crime as if it was
a crossword puzzle missing a few essential
letters that, once supplied, [39] make the motive
for a crime and the identity of its perpetrator
clear to all concerned. Using his wits and
courage, he invariably [40] searches for the
needed evidence and quickly solves the crime. [41]
[1] In fact, all this is a far cry from the
world of real-life detectives. [2] Modern private
investigators sometimes do monitor potential
shoplifters, but more often are involved in
actual investigations. [3] Typical assignments
might include [42] to do background checks on
people or tracking down missing persons.
[4] The work of real-life detectives differs from
the way their work is portrayed in books and
movies. [5] The modern-day private
investigator, however, spends less time on his or
her feet and considerably more time on the
computer. [43] Because the work is routine, the
end result of such inquiries might lead to the
reuniting of siblings separated since childhood
or to the criminal investigation of a company’s
business practices.
Even at its most exciting, the work of
modern-day private investigators is rarely
glamorous. It is much more likely to involve the
careful analysis of data than a high-speed car
chase. Today’s private detectives typically
[44] perform tasks that are a romantic’s dream,
full of action and excitement. But for those who
like to solve puzzles, for those who like to find
what’s missing or figure out what someone may
be up to, real private investigation still appeals
to the detective in all of us.

35 / 44

35. 35.

36 / 44

36. Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.
Private Investigators in Fiction and Fact
After I graduated from college and was
looking for a job, a newspaper employment ad
caught my eye. It sounded interesting, so I sent
in a résumé. I later discovered that the job was
for a store detective. [34] Duties including
watching for shoplifters and tracking the legally
or ethically questionable actions of store
employees.
The interview was my first hint that real-life
private investigators were not like the characters
one encountered in movies or mystery novels
such as [35] Raymond Chandler’s Philip
Marlowe or Dashiell Hammett’s Sam Spade
whose tough exteriors belie their soft-hearted
natures. [36] Not only do they track down
criminals, but they also solve crimes in the most
figures adhere to an incorruptible
dangerous of circumstances. These heroic
code of personal morality that enables them to
[37] succumb to the most formidable obstacles
as they apprehend criminals and restore order to
society. That is one vision of detective work.
Another image comes out of a more playful
tradition of mystery writing that includes
characters such as [38] Sherlock Holmes the
fictional genius who solves complex crimes—
sometimes without leaving his comfortable
armchair. Holmes approaches crime as if it was
a crossword puzzle missing a few essential
letters that, once supplied, [39] make the motive
for a crime and the identity of its perpetrator
clear to all concerned. Using his wits and
courage, he invariably [40] searches for the
needed evidence and quickly solves the crime. [41]
[1] In fact, all this is a far cry from the
world of real-life detectives. [2] Modern private
investigators sometimes do monitor potential
shoplifters, but more often are involved in
actual investigations. [3] Typical assignments
might include [42] to do background checks on
people or tracking down missing persons.
[4] The work of real-life detectives differs from
the way their work is portrayed in books and
movies. [5] The modern-day private
investigator, however, spends less time on his or
her feet and considerably more time on the
computer. [43] Because the work is routine, the
end result of such inquiries might lead to the
reuniting of siblings separated since childhood
or to the criminal investigation of a company’s
business practices.
Even at its most exciting, the work of
modern-day private investigators is rarely
glamorous. It is much more likely to involve the
careful analysis of data than a high-speed car
chase. Today’s private detectives typically
[44] perform tasks that are a romantic’s dream,
full of action and excitement. But for those who
like to solve puzzles, for those who like to find
what’s missing or figure out what someone may
be up to, real private investigation still appeals
to the detective in all of us.

37 / 44

37. Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.
Private Investigators in Fiction and Fact
After I graduated from college and was
looking for a job, a newspaper employment ad
caught my eye. It sounded interesting, so I sent
in a résumé. I later discovered that the job was
for a store detective. [34] Duties including
watching for shoplifters and tracking the legally
or ethically questionable actions of store
employees.
The interview was my first hint that real-life
private investigators were not like the characters
one encountered in movies or mystery novels
such as [35] Raymond Chandler’s Philip
Marlowe or Dashiell Hammett’s Sam Spade
whose tough exteriors belie their soft-hearted
natures. [36] Not only do they track down
criminals, but they also solve crimes in the most
figures adhere to an incorruptible
dangerous of circumstances. These heroic
code of personal morality that enables them to
[37] succumb to the most formidable obstacles
as they apprehend criminals and restore order to
society. That is one vision of detective work.
Another image comes out of a more playful
tradition of mystery writing that includes
characters such as [38] Sherlock Holmes the
fictional genius who solves complex crimes—
sometimes without leaving his comfortable
armchair. Holmes approaches crime as if it was
a crossword puzzle missing a few essential
letters that, once supplied, [39] make the motive
for a crime and the identity of its perpetrator
clear to all concerned. Using his wits and
courage, he invariably [40] searches for the
needed evidence and quickly solves the crime. [41]
[1] In fact, all this is a far cry from the
world of real-life detectives. [2] Modern private
investigators sometimes do monitor potential
shoplifters, but more often are involved in
actual investigations. [3] Typical assignments
might include [42] to do background checks on
people or tracking down missing persons.
[4] The work of real-life detectives differs from
the way their work is portrayed in books and
movies. [5] The modern-day private
investigator, however, spends less time on his or
her feet and considerably more time on the
computer. [43] Because the work is routine, the
end result of such inquiries might lead to the
reuniting of siblings separated since childhood
or to the criminal investigation of a company’s
business practices.
Even at its most exciting, the work of
modern-day private investigators is rarely
glamorous. It is much more likely to involve the
careful analysis of data than a high-speed car
chase. Today’s private detectives typically
[44] perform tasks that are a romantic’s dream,
full of action and excitement. But for those who
like to solve puzzles, for those who like to find
what’s missing or figure out what someone may
be up to, real private investigation still appeals
to the detective in all of us.

38 / 44

38. Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.
Private Investigators in Fiction and Fact
After I graduated from college and was
looking for a job, a newspaper employment ad
caught my eye. It sounded interesting, so I sent
in a résumé. I later discovered that the job was
for a store detective. [34] Duties including
watching for shoplifters and tracking the legally
or ethically questionable actions of store
employees.
The interview was my first hint that real-life
private investigators were not like the characters
one encountered in movies or mystery novels
such as [35] Raymond Chandler’s Philip
Marlowe or Dashiell Hammett’s Sam Spade
whose tough exteriors belie their soft-hearted
natures. [36] Not only do they track down
criminals, but they also solve crimes in the most
figures adhere to an incorruptible
dangerous of circumstances. These heroic
code of personal morality that enables them to
[37] succumb to the most formidable obstacles
as they apprehend criminals and restore order to
society. That is one vision of detective work.
Another image comes out of a more playful
tradition of mystery writing that includes
characters such as [38] Sherlock Holmes the
fictional genius who solves complex crimes—
sometimes without leaving his comfortable
armchair. Holmes approaches crime as if it was
a crossword puzzle missing a few essential
letters that, once supplied, [39] make the motive
for a crime and the identity of its perpetrator
clear to all concerned. Using his wits and
courage, he invariably [40] searches for the
needed evidence and quickly solves the crime. [41]
[1] In fact, all this is a far cry from the
world of real-life detectives. [2] Modern private
investigators sometimes do monitor potential
shoplifters, but more often are involved in
actual investigations. [3] Typical assignments
might include [42] to do background checks on
people or tracking down missing persons.
[4] The work of real-life detectives differs from
the way their work is portrayed in books and
movies. [5] The modern-day private
investigator, however, spends less time on his or
her feet and considerably more time on the
computer. [43] Because the work is routine, the
end result of such inquiries might lead to the
reuniting of siblings separated since childhood
or to the criminal investigation of a company’s
business practices.
Even at its most exciting, the work of
modern-day private investigators is rarely
glamorous. It is much more likely to involve the
careful analysis of data than a high-speed car
chase. Today’s private detectives typically
[44] perform tasks that are a romantic’s dream,
full of action and excitement. But for those who
like to solve puzzles, for those who like to find
what’s missing or figure out what someone may
be up to, real private investigation still appeals
to the detective in all of us.

39 / 44

39. Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.
Private Investigators in Fiction and Fact
After I graduated from college and was
looking for a job, a newspaper employment ad
caught my eye. It sounded interesting, so I sent
in a résumé. I later discovered that the job was
for a store detective. [34] Duties including
watching for shoplifters and tracking the legally
or ethically questionable actions of store
employees.
The interview was my first hint that real-life
private investigators were not like the characters
one encountered in movies or mystery novels
such as [35] Raymond Chandler’s Philip
Marlowe or Dashiell Hammett’s Sam Spade
whose tough exteriors belie their soft-hearted
natures. [36] Not only do they track down
criminals, but they also solve crimes in the most
figures adhere to an incorruptible
dangerous of circumstances. These heroic
code of personal morality that enables them to
[37] succumb to the most formidable obstacles
as they apprehend criminals and restore order to
society. That is one vision of detective work.
Another image comes out of a more playful
tradition of mystery writing that includes
characters such as [38] Sherlock Holmes the
fictional genius who solves complex crimes—
sometimes without leaving his comfortable
armchair. Holmes approaches crime as if it was
a crossword puzzle missing a few essential
letters that, once supplied, [39] make the motive
for a crime and the identity of its perpetrator
clear to all concerned. Using his wits and
courage, he invariably [40] searches for the
needed evidence and quickly solves the crime. [41]
[1] In fact, all this is a far cry from the
world of real-life detectives. [2] Modern private
investigators sometimes do monitor potential
shoplifters, but more often are involved in
actual investigations. [3] Typical assignments
might include [42] to do background checks on
people or tracking down missing persons.
[4] The work of real-life detectives differs from
the way their work is portrayed in books and
movies. [5] The modern-day private
investigator, however, spends less time on his or
her feet and considerably more time on the
computer. [43] Because the work is routine, the
end result of such inquiries might lead to the
reuniting of siblings separated since childhood
or to the criminal investigation of a company’s
business practices.
Even at its most exciting, the work of
modern-day private investigators is rarely
glamorous. It is much more likely to involve the
careful analysis of data than a high-speed car
chase. Today’s private detectives typically
[44] perform tasks that are a romantic’s dream,
full of action and excitement. But for those who
like to solve puzzles, for those who like to find
what’s missing or figure out what someone may
be up to, real private investigation still appeals
to the detective in all of us.

40 / 44

40. Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.
Private Investigators in Fiction and Fact
After I graduated from college and was
looking for a job, a newspaper employment ad
caught my eye. It sounded interesting, so I sent
in a résumé. I later discovered that the job was
for a store detective. [34] Duties including
watching for shoplifters and tracking the legally
or ethically questionable actions of store
employees.
The interview was my first hint that real-life
private investigators were not like the characters
one encountered in movies or mystery novels
such as [35] Raymond Chandler’s Philip
Marlowe or Dashiell Hammett’s Sam Spade
whose tough exteriors belie their soft-hearted
natures. [36] Not only do they track down
criminals, but they also solve crimes in the most
figures adhere to an incorruptible
dangerous of circumstances. These heroic
code of personal morality that enables them to
[37] succumb to the most formidable obstacles
as they apprehend criminals and restore order to
society. That is one vision of detective work.
Another image comes out of a more playful
tradition of mystery writing that includes
characters such as [38] Sherlock Holmes the
fictional genius who solves complex crimes—
sometimes without leaving his comfortable
armchair. Holmes approaches crime as if it was
a crossword puzzle missing a few essential
letters that, once supplied, [39] make the motive
for a crime and the identity of its perpetrator
clear to all concerned. Using his wits and
courage, he invariably [40] searches for the
needed evidence and quickly solves the crime. [41]
[1] In fact, all this is a far cry from the
world of real-life detectives. [2] Modern private
investigators sometimes do monitor potential
shoplifters, but more often are involved in
actual investigations. [3] Typical assignments
might include [42] to do background checks on
people or tracking down missing persons.
[4] The work of real-life detectives differs from
the way their work is portrayed in books and
movies. [5] The modern-day private
investigator, however, spends less time on his or
her feet and considerably more time on the
computer. [43] Because the work is routine, the
end result of such inquiries might lead to the
reuniting of siblings separated since childhood
or to the criminal investigation of a company’s
business practices.
Even at its most exciting, the work of
modern-day private investigators is rarely
glamorous. It is much more likely to involve the
careful analysis of data than a high-speed car
chase. Today’s private detectives typically
[44] perform tasks that are a romantic’s dream,
full of action and excitement. But for those who
like to solve puzzles, for those who like to find
what’s missing or figure out what someone may
be up to, real private investigation still appeals
to the detective in all of us.

40. Which word would have a bigger effect when used in this context?

41 / 44

41. Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.
Private Investigators in Fiction and Fact
After I graduated from college and was
looking for a job, a newspaper employment ad
caught my eye. It sounded interesting, so I sent
in a résumé. I later discovered that the job was
for a store detective. [34] Duties including
watching for shoplifters and tracking the legally
or ethically questionable actions of store
employees.
The interview was my first hint that real-life
private investigators were not like the characters
one encountered in movies or mystery novels
such as [35] Raymond Chandler’s Philip
Marlowe or Dashiell Hammett’s Sam Spade
whose tough exteriors belie their soft-hearted
natures. [36] Not only do they track down
criminals, but they also solve crimes in the most
figures adhere to an incorruptible
dangerous of circumstances. These heroic
code of personal morality that enables them to
[37] succumb to the most formidable obstacles
as they apprehend criminals and restore order to
society. That is one vision of detective work.
Another image comes out of a more playful
tradition of mystery writing that includes
characters such as [38] Sherlock Holmes the
fictional genius who solves complex crimes—
sometimes without leaving his comfortable
armchair. Holmes approaches crime as if it was
a crossword puzzle missing a few essential
letters that, once supplied, [39] make the motive
for a crime and the identity of its perpetrator
clear to all concerned. Using his wits and
courage, he invariably [40] searches for the
needed evidence and quickly solves the crime. [41]
[1] In fact, all this is a far cry from the
world of real-life detectives. [2] Modern private
investigators sometimes do monitor potential
shoplifters, but more often are involved in
actual investigations. [3] Typical assignments
might include [42] to do background checks on
people or tracking down missing persons.
[4] The work of real-life detectives differs from
the way their work is portrayed in books and
movies. [5] The modern-day private
investigator, however, spends less time on his or
her feet and considerably more time on the
computer. [43] Because the work is routine, the
end result of such inquiries might lead to the
reuniting of siblings separated since childhood
or to the criminal investigation of a company’s
business practices.
Even at its most exciting, the work of
modern-day private investigators is rarely
glamorous. It is much more likely to involve the
careful analysis of data than a high-speed car
chase. Today’s private detectives typically
[44] perform tasks that are a romantic’s dream,
full of action and excitement. But for those who
like to solve puzzles, for those who like to find
what’s missing or figure out what someone may
be up to, real private investigation still appeals
to the detective in all of us.

41. The main idea of this paragraph is stated in two sentences. Which are they?

42 / 44

42. Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.
Private Investigators in Fiction and Fact
After I graduated from college and was
looking for a job, a newspaper employment ad
caught my eye. It sounded interesting, so I sent
in a résumé. I later discovered that the job was
for a store detective. [34] Duties including
watching for shoplifters and tracking the legally
or ethically questionable actions of store
employees.
The interview was my first hint that real-life
private investigators were not like the characters
one encountered in movies or mystery novels
such as [35] Raymond Chandler’s Philip
Marlowe or Dashiell Hammett’s Sam Spade
whose tough exteriors belie their soft-hearted
natures. [36] Not only do they track down
criminals, but they also solve crimes in the most
figures adhere to an incorruptible
dangerous of circumstances. These heroic
code of personal morality that enables them to
[37] succumb to the most formidable obstacles
as they apprehend criminals and restore order to
society. That is one vision of detective work.
Another image comes out of a more playful
tradition of mystery writing that includes
characters such as [38] Sherlock Holmes the
fictional genius who solves complex crimes—
sometimes without leaving his comfortable
armchair. Holmes approaches crime as if it was
a crossword puzzle missing a few essential
letters that, once supplied, [39] make the motive
for a crime and the identity of its perpetrator
clear to all concerned. Using his wits and
courage, he invariably [40] searches for the
needed evidence and quickly solves the crime. [41]
[1] In fact, all this is a far cry from the
world of real-life detectives. [2] Modern private
investigators sometimes do monitor potential
shoplifters, but more often are involved in
actual investigations. [3] Typical assignments
might include [42] to do background checks on
people or tracking down missing persons.
[4] The work of real-life detectives differs from
the way their work is portrayed in books and
movies. [5] The modern-day private
investigator, however, spends less time on his or
her feet and considerably more time on the
computer. [43] Because the work is routine, the
end result of such inquiries might lead to the
reuniting of siblings separated since childhood
or to the criminal investigation of a company’s
business practices.
Even at its most exciting, the work of
modern-day private investigators is rarely
glamorous. It is much more likely to involve the
careful analysis of data than a high-speed car
chase. Today’s private detectives typically
[44] perform tasks that are a romantic’s dream,
full of action and excitement. But for those who
like to solve puzzles, for those who like to find
what’s missing or figure out what someone may
be up to, real private investigation still appeals
to the detective in all of us.

43 / 44

43. Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.
Private Investigators in Fiction and Fact
After I graduated from college and was
looking for a job, a newspaper employment ad
caught my eye. It sounded interesting, so I sent
in a résumé. I later discovered that the job was
for a store detective. [34] Duties including
watching for shoplifters and tracking the legally
or ethically questionable actions of store
employees.
The interview was my first hint that real-life
private investigators were not like the characters
one encountered in movies or mystery novels
such as [35] Raymond Chandler’s Philip
Marlowe or Dashiell Hammett’s Sam Spade
whose tough exteriors belie their soft-hearted
natures. [36] Not only do they track down
criminals, but they also solve crimes in the most
figures adhere to an incorruptible
dangerous of circumstances. These heroic
code of personal morality that enables them to
[37] succumb to the most formidable obstacles
as they apprehend criminals and restore order to
society. That is one vision of detective work.
Another image comes out of a more playful
tradition of mystery writing that includes
characters such as [38] Sherlock Holmes the
fictional genius who solves complex crimes—
sometimes without leaving his comfortable
armchair. Holmes approaches crime as if it was
a crossword puzzle missing a few essential
letters that, once supplied, [39] make the motive
for a crime and the identity of its perpetrator
clear to all concerned. Using his wits and
courage, he invariably [40] searches for the
needed evidence and quickly solves the crime. [41]
[1] In fact, all this is a far cry from the
world of real-life detectives. [2] Modern private
investigators sometimes do monitor potential
shoplifters, but more often are involved in
actual investigations. [3] Typical assignments
might include [42] to do background checks on
people or tracking down missing persons.
[4] The work of real-life detectives differs from
the way their work is portrayed in books and
movies. [5] The modern-day private
investigator, however, spends less time on his or
her feet and considerably more time on the
computer. [43] Because the work is routine, the
end result of such inquiries might lead to the
reuniting of siblings separated since childhood
or to the criminal investigation of a company’s
business practices.
Even at its most exciting, the work of
modern-day private investigators is rarely
glamorous. It is much more likely to involve the
careful analysis of data than a high-speed car
chase. Today’s private detectives typically
[44] perform tasks that are a romantic’s dream,
full of action and excitement. But for those who
like to solve puzzles, for those who like to find
what’s missing or figure out what someone may
be up to, real private investigation still appeals
to the detective in all of us.

44 / 44

44. Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.
Private Investigators in Fiction and Fact
After I graduated from college and was
looking for a job, a newspaper employment ad
caught my eye. It sounded interesting, so I sent
in a résumé. I later discovered that the job was
for a store detective. [34] Duties including
watching for shoplifters and tracking the legally
or ethically questionable actions of store
employees.
The interview was my first hint that real-life
private investigators were not like the characters
one encountered in movies or mystery novels
such as [35] Raymond Chandler’s Philip
Marlowe or Dashiell Hammett’s Sam Spade
whose tough exteriors belie their soft-hearted
natures. [36] Not only do they track down
criminals, but they also solve crimes in the most
figures adhere to an incorruptible
dangerous of circumstances. These heroic
code of personal morality that enables them to
[37] succumb to the most formidable obstacles
as they apprehend criminals and restore order to
society. That is one vision of detective work.
Another image comes out of a more playful
tradition of mystery writing that includes
characters such as [38] Sherlock Holmes the
fictional genius who solves complex crimes—
sometimes without leaving his comfortable
armchair. Holmes approaches crime as if it was
a crossword puzzle missing a few essential
letters that, once supplied, [39] make the motive
for a crime and the identity of its perpetrator
clear to all concerned. Using his wits and
courage, he invariably [40] searches for the
needed evidence and quickly solves the crime. [41]
[1] In fact, all this is a far cry from the
world of real-life detectives. [2] Modern private
investigators sometimes do monitor potential
shoplifters, but more often are involved in
actual investigations. [3] Typical assignments
might include [42] to do background checks on
people or tracking down missing persons.
[4] The work of real-life detectives differs from
the way their work is portrayed in books and
movies. [5] The modern-day private
investigator, however, spends less time on his or
her feet and considerably more time on the
computer. [43] Because the work is routine, the
end result of such inquiries might lead to the
reuniting of siblings separated since childhood
or to the criminal investigation of a company’s
business practices.
Even at its most exciting, the work of
modern-day private investigators is rarely
glamorous. It is much more likely to involve the
careful analysis of data than a high-speed car
chase. Today’s private detectives typically
[44] perform tasks that are a romantic’s dream,
full of action and excitement. But for those who
like to solve puzzles, for those who like to find
what’s missing or figure out what someone may
be up to, real private investigation still appeals
to the detective in all of us.

44. Which choice is most consistent with the argument made in the first sentence of the paragraph?

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