Questions 43-52 are based on the following
Passage 1 is adapted from Cristina Eisenberg, The Carnivore Way: Coexisting with and Conserving North America’s Predators. ©2014 by Cristina Eisenberg. Passage 2 is adapted from John R. Squires et al., “Missing Lynx and Trophic Cascades in Food Webs: A Reply to Ripple et al.” ©2012 by The Wildlife Society. A trophic cascade occurs when the presence of a predator decreases the population of its prey, thereby increasing the numbers of organisms at the next-lower trophic level.
|Passage I||Passage II|
Based on the passages, Ripple and his colleagues and
the authors of Passage 2 would likely agree with
which statement about wolves and coyotes?
A) Wolves and coyotes typically occupy the same
trophic level in an ecosystem.
B) It is possible for wolves to initiate trophic
cascades through their effects on coyotes.
C) There are some circumstances in which the
presence of wolves may benefit coyotes.
D) Wolves and coyotes can have both ecological and
behavioral effects on large herbivores.