Questions 43-52 are based on the following
Passage 1 is adapted from Cristina Eisenberg, The Carnivore Way: Coexisting with and Conserving North America’s Predators. ©2014 by Cristina Eisenberg. Passage 2 is adapted from John R. Squires et al., “Missing Lynx and Trophic Cascades in Food Webs: A Reply to Ripple et al.” ©2012 by The Wildlife Society. A trophic cascade occurs when the presence of a predator decreases the population of its prey, thereby increasing the numbers of organisms at the next-lower trophic level.

Passage I Passage II




Based on the passages, Ripple and his colleagues and
the authors of Passage 2 would likely agree with
which statement about wolves and coyotes?

  • A) Wolves and coyotes typically occupy the same
    trophic level in an ecosystem.

  • B) It is possible for wolves to initiate trophic
    cascades through their effects on coyotes.

  • C) There are some circumstances in which the
    presence of wolves may benefit coyotes.

  • D) Wolves and coyotes can have both ecological and
    behavioral effects on large herbivores.