Questions 43-52 are based on the following
Passage 1 is adapted from Cristina Eisenberg, The Carnivore Way: Coexisting with and Conserving North America’s Predators. ©2014 by Cristina Eisenberg. Passage 2 is adapted from John R. Squires et al., “Missing Lynx and Trophic Cascades in Food Webs: A Reply to Ripple et al.” ©2012 by The Wildlife Society. A trophic cascade occurs when the presence of a predator decreases the population of its prey, thereby increasing the numbers of organisms at the next-lower trophic level.

Passage I Passage II




The authors of Passage 2 suggest that the hypothesis
described in lines 28-32 (“The researchers . . . lynx”)

  • A) contradicted by anecdotal observations.

  • B) valid for many populations but not for all.

  • C) difficult to test in a natural setting.

  • D) based on insufficient data